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Journal Article

Effect of Unburned Methyl Esters on the NOx Conversion of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

Engine and flow reactor experiments were conducted to determine the impact of biodiesel relative to ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) on inhibition of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction over an Fe-zeolite catalyst. Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts have the ability to adsorb and store unburned hydrocarbons (HC) at temperatures below 300°C. These stored HCs inhibit or block NOx-ammonia reaction sites at low temperatures. Although biodiesel is not a hydrocarbon, similar effects are anticipated for unburned biodiesel and its organic combustion products. Flow reactor experiments indicate that in the absence of exposure to HC or B100, NOx conversion begins at between 100° and 200°C. When exposure to unburned fuel occurs at higher temperatures (250°-400°C), the catalyst is able to adsorb a greater mass of biodiesel than of ULSD. Experiments show that when the catalyst is masked with ULSD, NOx conversion is inhibited until it is heated to 400°C.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Performance with a Medium-Duty Engine

Testing to investigate biodiesel's impact on the performance of a zeolite-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system was conducted. The tests employed a 2004 compliant Cummins ISB with common rail fuel injection, EGR, and variable geometry turbo. This 5.9L, 300HP engine was retrofitted with a Johnson-Matthey DPF + SCR (SCRT™) system. Testing was conducted over eight steady-state engine operating modes which provided a wide range of exhaust temperature and exhaust chemistry conditions. Fuels tested were a 2007 certification quality ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), as well as a soy derived biodiesel in a B20 blend. B20 produced slightly lower catalyst temperatures and higher NO2:NOx ratios relative to ULSD, but no measureable difference in the overall NOx conversion over the SCR system. The dominant variable influencing SCR performance is the catalyst space velocity, which is unchanged with the use of B20.