Measured and Predicted Vapor Liquid Equilibrium of Ethanol-Gasoline Fuels with Insight on the Influence of Azeotrope Interactions on Aromatic Species Enrichment and Particulate Matter Formation in Spark Ignition Engines
A relationship has been observed between increasing ethanol content in gasoline and increased particulate matter (PM) emissions from direct injection spark ignition (DISI) vehicles. The fundamental cause of this observation is not well understood. One potential explanation is that increased evaporative cooling as a result of ethanol’s high HOV may slow evaporation and prevent sufficient reactant mixing resulting in the combustion of localized fuel rich regions within the cylinder. In addition, it is well known that ethanol when blended in gasoline forms positive azeotropes which can alter the liquid/vapor composition during the vaporization process. In fact, it was shown recently through a numerical study that these interactions can retain the aromatic species within the liquid phase impeding the in-cylinder mixing of these compounds, which would accentuate PM formation upon combustion.