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Technical Paper

Long-Term Durability of Passive Diesel Particulate Filters on Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0079
A multi-year technology validation program was completed in 2001 to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different diesel fleets operating in Southern California. The fuels used throughout the validation program were diesel fuels with less than 15-ppm sulfur content. Trucks and buses were retrofitted with two types of passive DPFs. Two rounds of emissions testing were performed to determine if there was any degradation in the emissions reduction. The results demonstrated robust emissions performance for each of the DPF technologies over a one-year period. Detailed descriptions of the overall program and results have been described in previous SAE publications [2, 3, 4, 5]. In 2002, a third round of emission testing was performed by NREL on a small subset of vehicles in the Ralphs Grocery Truck fleet that demonstrated continued robust emissions performance after two years of operation and over 220,000 miles.
Journal Article

Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1790
Increasing interest in biofuels—specifically, biodiesel as a pathway to energy diversity and security—have necessitated the need for research on the performance and utilization of these fuels and fuel blends in current and future vehicle fleets. One critical research area is related to achieving a full understanding of the impact of biodiesel fuel blends on advanced emission control systems. In addition, the use of biodiesel fuel blends can degrade diesel engine oil performance and impact the oil drain interval requirements. There is limited information related to the impact of biodiesel fuel blends on oil dilution. This paper assesses the oil dilution impacts on an engine operating in conjunction with a diesel particle filter (DPF), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) storage, a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control system, and a 20% biodiesel (soy-derived) fuel blend.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-To-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

2004-10-25
2004-01-2959
A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT™ diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made. Bench scale fuel-engine compatibility testing showed the GTL fuel had cold flow properties suitable for year-round use in southern California and was additized to meet current lubricity standards. Bench scale elastomer compatibility testing returned results similar to those of CARB specification diesel fuel. The GTL fuel met or exceeded ASTM D975 fuel properties. Researchers used a chassis dynamometer to test emissions over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and New York City Bus (NYCB) cycles.
Technical Paper

Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuels - Properties and Exhaust Emissions: A Literature Review

2003-03-03
2003-01-0763
Natural gas, coal, and biomass can be converted to diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) processes. Variations of the F-T process and/or product work-up can be used to tailor the fuel properties to meet end-users needs. Regardless of feedstock or process, F-T diesel fuels typically have a number of very desirable properties. This review describes typical F-T diesel fuel properties, discusses how these fuel properties impact pollutant emissions, and draws together data from known engine and chassis dynamometer studies of emissions. The comparison of fuel properties reveals that F-T diesel fuel is typically one of two types - a very high cetane number (>74), zero aromatic product or a moderate cetane (∼60), low aromatic (≤15%) product. The very high cetane fuels typically have less desirable low temperature properties while the moderate cetane fuels have cold flow properties more typical of conventional diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization by Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues

1999-05-03
1999-01-1469
Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more.
Technical Paper

Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck

2005-10-24
2005-01-3766
A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration. The emission control devices included a deNOx filter and a diesel particle filter. Over the transient test, the emissions met the 2007 standards. In July 2004, the modified engine was installed into a Class 8 tractor for use by a grocery fleet. Chassis emission testing of the modified vehicle was conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) facility. Testing included hot and cold replicate Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and New York Composite (NYComp) cycles and several steady-state points. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate the vehicle's with the modified engine.
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