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Technical Paper

Validation and Instrumentation of a Small Modular Multi-Stage Axial Compressor for Ice Crystal Icing Research

2019-06-10
2019-01-1940
The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) has undergone the development of a Small Axial Compressor Rig for modelling altitude ice accretion in aircraft engines. The rig consists of two axial compressor stages measuring approximately 150mm in diameter, an extension duct to allow residence time for partial melting of ice crystals and a test piece. The axial compressor stages are intended to provide realistic engine conditioning such as fracture, pressure rise, temperature rise and centrifuging of glaciated ice crystals entering the rig. The rig was designed for use in altitude icing wind tunnels such as the NRC’s altitude icing wind tunnel (AIWT), research altitude test facility (RATFac.), and those of other organization such as NASA Glenn and Technical University of Braunshweig. Previous development work [1] provided partial validation of the aerodynamic performance of just the first compressor stage at 90% power.
Technical Paper

In-Cabin Aeroacoustics of a Full-Scale Transport Truck

2016-09-27
2016-01-8143
The noise generated by the flow of air past a transport truck is a key design factor for the manufacturers of these vehicles as the sound levels in the cabin are a significant component of driver comfort. This paper describes a collaboration between Volvo GTT and the National Research Council Canada to measure the in-cabin aeroacoustics of a full-scale cab-over tractor in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel. Acoustic instrumentation was installed inside the tractor to record cabin noise levels and externally to acquire tunnel background noise data. Using a microphone mounted on the driver’s-side tunnel wall as a reference to remove variations in background noise levels between data points, differences in cabin noise levels were able to be detected when comparing the tractor with different configurations. The good repeatability of the data allowed for differences of as little as 0.5 dB to be measured.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

2011-06-13
2011-38-0018
Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice-crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations.
Technical Paper

Development of a Supercooled Large Droplet Environment within the NRC Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel

2015-06-15
2015-01-2092
Simulations of supercooled large droplet (SLD) icing environments within the NRC's Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel (AIWT) have been performed in which broad band mass distribution spectra are achieved that include a distinct pattern of liquid water content (LWC) over a range of droplet sizes (i.e., bi-modal distribution). The mass distribution is achieved through modification of the existing spray system of the AIWT to allow two spray profiles with differing LWC and median volumetric diameter (MVD) to be simultaneously injected into the flow. Results of spray profile distributions measured in the test section have demonstrated that freezing drizzle conditions, where MVD is either less than or greater than 40 μm, can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Development and Commissioning of a Linear Compressor Cascade Rig for Ice Crystal Research

2011-06-13
2011-38-0079
This paper describes the commissioning of a linear compressor cascade rig for ice crystal research. The rig is located in an altitude chamber so the test section stagnation pressure, temperature and Mach number can be varied independently. The facility is open-circuit which eliminates the possibility of recirculating ice crystals reentering the test section and modifying the median mass diameter and total water content in time. As this is an innovative facility, the operating procedures and instrumentation used are discussed. Sample flow quality data are presented showing the distribution of velocity, temperature, turbulence intensity and ice water concentration in the test section. The control and repeatability of experimental parameters is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Performance Degradation - the Effects of Inflight Icing upon Lift, Drag and Propulsive Efficiency

2011-06-13
2011-38-0073
Data is presented from a number of flight research aircraft, which have been involved in the research of the effects of inflight icing, in a variety of atmospheric supercooled droplet and mixed-phase icing environmental conditions. The aircraft Types considered cover both Pneumatic and Thermal Ice Protection Systems (IPS). Icing includes supercooled droplet impact icing upon airframe and propeller blades and cold-soaked frost icing. The drag effects of inflight icing, from mixed-phase small and large droplets encountered during the course of SALPEX cloud physics research operations, upon a Fokker F-27 turboprop transport aircraft, have been analyzed. Furthermore, during the course of AIRS 1.5 and AIRS II inflight icing flight research operations, the NRC Convair conducted aerodynamic characterization maneuvers, following and during icing accretion in a wide range of environmental conditions of altitude, air temperature, LWC and droplet spectra.
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