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Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Testing of Welded Tubes for Exhaust Applications

Selected ferritic stainless steel sheets for exhaust applications were tested under thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) condition in the temperature range of 400-800 °C with partial constraint. Straight welded tubes were used as the testing coupons to withstand large compression without buckling, and to understand the effect of welding as well. Repeated tests confirmed the observed failure scenario for each material type. The hysteresis loop behaviors were also simulated using the mechanism-based integrated creep and fatigue theory (ICFT) model. Although more development work is needed, for quick material screening purpose this type of testing could be a very cost effective solution for materials and tube weld development for exhaust applications.
Journal Article

Residual Stress Mapping along the Cylinder Bores of Al Alloy Engine Blocks Subjected to Production Solution Heat Treatment Schedule

The development of an optimized heat treatment schedule, with the aim of maximizing strength and relieving tensile residual stress, is important to prevent in-service cylinder distortion in Al alloy engine blocks containing cast-in gray iron liners. However, to effectively optimize the engine block heat treatment schedule, the current solutionizing parameters must be analyzed and compared to the as-cast condition to establish a baseline for residual stress relief. In this study, neutron diffraction was carried out to measure the residual stress along the aluminum cylinder bridge following solution heat treatment. The stresses were measured in the hoop, radial and axial orientations and compared to a previous measured as-cast (TSR) engine block. The results suggest that solution heat treatment using the current production parameters partially relieved tensile residual stress in the Al cylinder bridge, with stress relief being more effective near the bottom of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Hot Forming of 7075 Aluminium Alloy Tubes to Produce Complex and Strong Components

Lightweight tubular products offering enhanced stiffness and strength have always been of major concern for transportation and recreational applications. Hence, industries have turned to complex-shaped tubes to increase product performance and reduce energy costs. High-performance aluminum alloys, like 7075 for instance, have good mechanical properties such as high strength, but low formability at ambient temperature. Fortunately, hot tensile tests on 7075 samples have yielded an increase in formability with temperature. Therefore, testing has recently been launched at the Aluminum Technology Center to develop a new product application. More precisely, a 1,000-ton hydraulic press was equipped with +600°C heating plates and fitted with a bicycle handlebar mold. The plates provide 10 separate heating zones that can be adjusted independently. A thermo-mechanical model was also developed using LS-DYNA to determine tube temperatures around the heating zones.
Journal Article

Fracture Behavior of Typical Structural Adhesive Joints Under Quasi-Static and Cyclic Loadings

Structural adhesive joints are expected to retain integrity in their entire service-life that normally involves cyclic loading concurrent with environmental exposure. Under such a severe working condition, effective determination of fatigue life at different temperatures is crucial for reliable joint design. The main goal of this work was thus defined as evaluation of fatigue performance of adhesive joints at their extreme working temperatures in order to be compared with their fracture properties under static loading. A series of standard double-cantilever-beam (DCB) specimens have been bonded by three structural 3M epoxy adhesives selected from different applications. The specimens were tested under monotonic and cyclic opening loads (mode-I) in order to evaluate the quasi-static and fatigue performances of selected adhesives at room temperature, 80°C and -40°C.
Technical Paper

Failure Mechanisms and Damage Model of Ductile Cast Iron under Low-Cycle Fatigue Conditions

Strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue (LCF) experiments were conducted on ductile cast iron at total strain rates of 1.2/min, 0.12/min and 0.012/min in a temperature range of RT ~ 800°C. An integrated creep-fatigue (ICF) life prediction framework is proposed, which embodies a deformation mechanism based constitutive model and a thermomechanical damage model. The constitutive model is based on the decomposition of inelastic deformation into plasticity and creep mechanisms, which can describe both rate-independent and rate-dependent cyclic responses under wide strain rate and temperature conditions. The damage model takes into consideration of i) plasticity-induced fatigue, ii) intergranular embrittlement, iii) creep and iv) oxidation. Each damage form is formulated based on the respective physical mechanism/strain.
Journal Article

Effect of Chill Parameters on the Residual Strain in Cast 319 Aluminum Alloy: A Neutron Diffraction Study

The demand for light weight vehicles continues to stimulate extensive research into the development of light weight casting alloys and optimization of their manufacturing processes. Of primary relevance are Aluminum (Al) and Magnesium (Mg) based alloys, which have successfully replaced selected iron based castings in automobiles. However, optimization of as-cast microstructure, processing and performance remains a challenge for some Al-based alloys. In this context, placement of chills in castings has been frequently used to locally manipulate the solidification conditions and microstructure of a casting. In this work, the effect of using an active copper chill on the residual strain profile of a sand-cast B319 aluminum alloy was investigated. Wedge-shaped castings were produced with three different cooling conditions: copper plate chill, copper pipe with cooling water and no chill (baseline).
Technical Paper

Carded Recycled Carbon Fiber Mats for the Production of Thermoset Composites via Infusion/Compression Molding

The use of carbon fiber reinforced thermoset composites has doubled in the last decade raising questions about the waste generated from manufacturing and at end-of-life, especially in the aircraft industry. In this study, 2.5 cm long carbon fibers were recovered from thermoset composite waste using a commercial scale pyrolysis process. Scanning electron microscopy, density measurements, single filament tensile testing as well as micro-droplet testing were performed to characterize the morphology, mechanical properties, and surface adhesion of the fibers. The recycled fibers appeared to be mostly undamaged and clean, exhibiting comparable mechanical properties to virgin carbon fibers. A carding process followed by an ultrasound treatment produced randomly aligned recycled fiber mats. These mats were used to fabricate composite plates, with fiber volume fractions up to 40 %, by infusion / compression molding.
Journal Article

Analysis of Residual Strain Profiles in Distorted Aluminum Engine Blocks by Neutron Diffraction

In recent years, light weight components have been an area of significant importance in automotive design. This has led to the replacement of steel and cast iron with aluminum alloys for many automotive components. For instance, Al-Si alloys have successfully replaced nodular and gray cast iron in the production of large automotive components such as engine blocks. However, excessive residual strain along the cylinder bores of these engine blocks may result in cylinder distortion during engine operation. Therefore, in this study, neutron diffraction was used to evaluate residual strain along the aluminum cylinder bridge and the gray cast iron liners of distorted and undistorted engine blocks. The strains were measured in the hoop, radial, and axial orientations. The results suggest that the residual strain along the aluminum cylinder bridge of the distorted engine block was tensile for all three measured components.