Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Using Advanced Injection Timing and EGR to Improve DI Diesel Engine Efficiency at Acceptable NO and Soot Levels

2001-03-05
2001-01-0199
The direct injection diesel engine is one of the most efficient thermal engines known to man. For this reason DI diesel engines are widely used for heavy-duty applications and especially for the propulsion of trucks. Even though the efficiency of these engines is currently at a high level there still exist possibilities for further improvement. One way to accomplish this is by increasing the injection timing which usually improves, depending on the operating conditions, the indicated efficiency of the engine. On the other hand advanced injection timing has a negative effect on peak pressure causing a serious increase of its value, a negative effect on NO emissions which are also seriously increased and a positive effect on Soot emissions which are reduced. In the present work a theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to determine the effect of more advanced injection timing on engine performance and pollutant emissions.
Technical Paper

Use of JP-8 Aviation Fuel and Biodiesel on a Diesel Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-3033
The present paper aims to discuss the quality characteristics of Jet Fuels used in the Greek market in comparison with fuels used in other countries and to evaluate jet fuels along with diesel and biodiesel on a diesel engine. To establish the quality characteristics for Jet Fuels of the Greek market, fuel samples were collected from the local refineries on a regular basis, thus monitoring the fuel quality fluctuation over time. JP8, along with diesel and biodiesel, were used alone and in mixtures on a single cylinder stationary diesel engine. Emissions and volumetric fuel consumption were measured under various loads.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Analysis of SI Engine Operation on Variable Composition Biogas-Hydrogen Blends Using a Quasi-Dimensional, Multi-Zone Combustion Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-0931
In this work, a quasi-dimensional, multi-zone combustion model is analytically presented, for the prediction of performance and nitric oxide (NO) emissions of a homogeneous charge spark ignition (SI) engine, fueled with biogas-H2 blends of variable composition. The combustion model is incorporated into a closed cycle simulation code, which is also fully described. Combustion is modeled on the basis of turbulent entrainment theory and flame stretch concepts. In this context, the entrainment speed, by which unburned gas enters the flame region, is simulated by the turbulent burning velocity of a flamelet model. A flame stretch submodel is also included, in order to assess the flame response on the combined effects of curvature, turbulent strain and nonunity Lewis number mixture. As far as the burned gas is concerned, this is treated using a multi-zone thermodynamic formulation, to account for the spatial distribution of temperature and NO concentration inside the burned volume.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Various Dynamic, Thermodynamic and Design Parameters on the Performance of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine Operating under Transient Load Conditions

2004-03-08
2004-01-0926
Thermodynamic, dynamic and design parameters have a significant and often conflicting impact on the transient response of a compression ignition engine. Knowing the contribution of each parameter on transient operation could direct the designer to the appropriate measures for better engine performance. To this aim an explicit simulation program developed is used to study the performance of a turbocharged diesel engine operating under transient load conditions. The simulation developed, based on the filling and emptying approach, provides various innovations as follows: Detailed analysis of thermodynamic and dynamic differential equations, on a degree crank angle basis, accounting for the continuously changing nature of transient operation, analysis of transient mechanical friction, and also a detailed mathematical simulation of the fuel pump. Each equation in the model is solved separately for every cylinder of the 6-cylinder diesel engine considered.
Technical Paper

The Effect of EGR on the Performance and Pollutant Emissions of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Using Constant and Variable AFR

2001-03-05
2001-01-0198
Pollutant emissions and specifically NO and soot are one of the most important problems that engineers have to face when developing heavy duty DI diesel engines. Two main strategies exist as options for their control, reduction inside the engine cylinder using advanced combustion and fuel injection technologies and use of after-treatment systems. In the present work it is examined the use of EGR to control the formation of NO inside the cylinder of an engine with extremely high peak pressure. The work is applied on a single cylinder truck test engine developed under a project funded by the European Community focusing on the improvement of heavy duty DI diesel engine efficiency using increased injection timing. Use is made of a simulation model to predict the effect of more advanced injection timing on engine performance and emissions. The model has been modified to include the effect of EGR used to c ontrol the formation of NO which is considerably increased at high injection timings.
Technical Paper

Some Considerations on the Estimation of the Heat Release of DI Diesel Engines Using Modelling Techniques

2004-03-08
2004-01-1405
Simulation models are widely used from research engineers to investigate the combustion mechanism of DI diesel engines. These models can be used, as tools to either comprehend information provided by experimental data or to perform predictions and assist the development process. As widely recognized a valuable source of information for engine performance and emissions studies is the cylinder pressure trace. It can provide after processing information concerning the combustion rate of fuel injected inside the combustion chamber. Often it is also used to calibrate simulation models or even to derive correlations to represent the combustion rate of fuel inside the combustion chamber. The present research team has during the development process of a simulation model for the description of DI diesel engine performance and emissions realized that there exists a serious problem.
Technical Paper

Second-Law Analysis of Indirect Injection Turbocharged Diesel Engine Operation under Steady-State and Transient Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-1131
A second-law analysis is performed in both chambers of an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine and the simulation program developed is used to study the second-law performance of the engine at various operating conditions, steady state and transient. The simulation developed is based on the filling and emptying approach and provides detailed analysis of thermodynamic, dynamic and second-law differential equations on a degree crank angle basis. It incorporates a detailed mathematical simulation of the fuel pump and solves each equation separately for each one of the six cylinders of the engine in hand. The model is validated against experimental data at steady state and transient conditions, obtained at the authors' laboratory. The prechamber rate and cumulative availability terms and irreversibilities are computed and depicted against the main chamber ones during the 720 degrees crank angle of an engine cycle.
Journal Article

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions of a Euro 4 SUV Operated with Diesel and Soy-based Biodiesel Blends

2009-11-02
2009-01-2690
In this study, regulated, unregulated exhaust emissions and fuel consumption with ultra low sulphur diesel and soy-based biodiesel blends at proportions of 10 and 30% v/v have been investigated. A Euro 4 compliant SUV, equipped with a 2.2 litre common-rail diesel engine and an oxidation catalyst was tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) technique. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles which simulate urban, rural, and highway driving conditions in Europe. The regulated pollutants were characterized by determined NOx, PM, CO, and HC. CO2 was also quantified in the exhaust. Overall, 16 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, 6 oxy-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds and particulate alkanes ranged from C13 to C35 were determined in the exhaust.
Journal Article

Possibility to Determine Diesel Engine Condition and Tuning from the Application of a Diagnostic Technique at a Single Operating Point

2009-04-20
2009-01-0681
A difficulty which exists when applying diagnostic techniques on large-scale diesel engines operating on the field, is that usually it is not possible to obtain measurement data at a wide engine operating range due to a number of constraints. In the present work is investigated the possibility to overcome this practical difficulty originating from the test procedure for engines operating on the field (i.e. marine or stationary applications). The main objective is to examine if a diagnosis procedure provides similar results when applied at various engine operating conditions. For this purpose an existing diagnostic technique, developed by the authors, is applied at different operating conditions on a large-scale two-stroke diesel engine used for power generation in a Greek island.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of the Availability Balance in an Internal Combustion Engine Cylinder

2001-03-05
2001-01-1263
The current work uses a method developed by the authors for both combustion irreversibility and working medium availability computations in a high speed, naturally aspirated, four stroke, internal combustion engine cylinder. The objective of the study was to extrapolate already published results of the second-law analysis of diesel engine operation by studying parametrically the effect of main operating parameters such as engine speed of rotation, injection timing, and fuel composition. Extensive experimental data were available for the case of dodecane injection, which were used for the determination of the fuel reaction rate. Computationally, the same reaction rates were used for methane and methanol injection. The production rate of irreversibility during combustion was analytically calculated as a function of the fuel reaction rate with the combined use of first and second-law arguments and a chemical equilibrium hypothesis.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone Combustion Modelling for the Prediction of Pollutants Emissions and Performance of DI Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970635
In the past years various models have been proposed for the modelling of performance and pollutants emissions from DI diesel engines. These models range from complicated 3D detailed ones up to simple two zone phenomenological ones. The latter ones although simple offer solutions in engine study and are widely used due to their low computational cost and simplicity. In the present work a multi-zone model for direct injection diesel engines is presented together with its application on a direct injection diesel engine located at the authors laboratory. Multi-zone models usually fail to predict adequately both pollutants emissions and performance and thus focus mainly on pollutants emissions. Of course this is not acceptable since the formation of pollutants is strongly related to the combustion mechanism. In the present work an effort has been made to overcome this problem and predict both performance and emissions throughout the engine operating range.
Technical Paper

Identification and Correction of the Error Induced by the Sampling Method Used to Monitor Cylinder Pressure of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1155
Cylinder pressure measurements are common practice for internal combustion reciprocating engines during field or lab applications for the purpose of combustion analysis, condition monitoring etc. The most accurate method is to measure cylinder pressure using a crank angle encoder as a trigger source to guarantee cylinder pressure measurement at predefined crank angle events. This solution, even though favorable, presents a number of practical difficulties for field applications and increased cost, for this reason its use is practically restricted to lab applications. Therefore a commonly used approach for ad hoc measurements is to digitize samples at fixed time intervals and then convert time into crank angle assuming a constant rotational speed. But if engine rotational speed is not constant within the engine cycle this may result to incorrect cylinder pressure CA referencing.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Fuel Composition on the Formation of Pollutants in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0189
A great deal of research is taking place at the present time in the field of diesel engines, especially regarding the emission of gaseous pollutants and soot. This research is essential for engine manufacturers since it is difficult for diesel engines to meet current standards regarding soot and nitric oxide emissions. The problem will become even more severe when the new legislation will be applicable requiring a 50% reduction of existing levels. Many manufacturers and researchers feel that engines will be difficult to meet this criterion without the use of other techniques such as gas aftertreatment or newly developed fuels (low sulfur content, etc.). The aim of this research is to examine the effect of fuel composition and physical properties on the mechanism of combustion and pollutants formation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Instantaneous Cyclic Heat Transfer in the Combustion Chamber and Exhaust Manifold of a DI Diesel Engine under Transient Operating Conditions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1122
In this paper, the results are presented from the analysis of the second stage of an experimental investigation with the aim to provide insight to the cyclic, instantaneous heat transfer phenomena occurring in both the cylinder head and exhaust manifold wall surfaces of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled diesel engine. Results from the first stage of the investigation concerning steady-state engine operation have already been presented by the authors in this series. In this second stage, the mechanism of cyclic heat transfer was investigated during engine transient events, viz. after a sudden change in engine speed and/or load, both for the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold surfaces. The modified experimental installation allowed both long- and short-term signal types to be recorded on a common time reference base during the transient event.
Journal Article

Experimental Assessment of Instantaneous Heat Transfer in the Combustion Chamber and Exhaust Manifold Walls of Air-Cooled Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1326
An experimental analysis is carried out to investigate several heat transfer characteristics during the engine cycle, in the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold walls of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled, diesel engine. For this purpose, a novel experimental installation has been developed, which separates the engine transient temperature signals into two groups, namely the long-and the short- term response ones, processing the respective signals in two independent data acquisition systems. Furthermore, a new pre-amplification unit for fast response thermocouples, appropriate heat flux sensors and an innovative, object-oriented, control code for fast data acquisition have been designed and applied. Experimentally obtained cylinder pressure diagrams together with semi-empirical equations for instantaneous heat transfer were used as basis for the calculation of overall heat transfer coefficient.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Phases in a DI Diesel Engine Based on Instantaneous Cyclic Heat Transfer Experimental Data

2013-04-08
2013-01-1646
In the present paper a new method is proposed for the analysis of the two main phases of the engine exhaust stroke blowdown and displacement. The method is based on the processing of fast-response experimental temperatures obtained from the exhaust manifold wall during the engine cycle. A novel experimental installation has been developed, which separates the engine transient temperature signals into two groups, namely the long- and the short- term response ones. This has been achieved by processing the respective signals acquired from two independent data acquisition systems. Furthermore, a new pre-amplification unit for fast response thermocouples, appropriate heat flux sensors and an innovative, object-oriented, control code for fast data acquisition have been designed and applied. For the experimental procedure a direct injection (DI), air-cooled diesel engine is used.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a New Diagnostic Technique to Detect and Account for Load Variation during Cylinder Pressure Measurement of Large-Scale Four-Stroke Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1342
High efficiency, power concentration and reliability are the main requirements from Diesel Engines that are used in most technical applications. This becomes more important with the increase of engine size. For this reason the aforementioned characteristics are of significant priority for both marine and power generation applications. To guarantee efficient engine operation and maximum power output, both research and commercial communities are increasingly interested in methods used for supervision, fault-detection and fault diagnosis of large scale Diesel Engines. Most of these methods make use of the measured cylinder pressure to estimate various critical operating parameters such as, brake power, fuel consumption, compression status, etc. The results obtained from the application of any diagnostic technique, used to assess the current engine operating condition and identify the real cause of the malfunction or fault, depend strongly on the quality of these data.
Journal Article

Effect of Fuel Chemical Structure and Properties on Diesel Engine Performance and Pollutant Emissions: Review of the Results of Four European Research Programs

2008-04-14
2008-01-0838
During recent years, the deterioration of greenhouse phenomenon, in conjunction with the continuous increase of worldwide fleet of vehicles and crude oil prices, raised heightened concerns over both the improvement of vehicle mileage and the reduction of pollutant emissions. Diesel engines have the highest fuel economy and thus, highest CO2 reduction potential among all other thermal propulsion engines due to their superior thermal efficiency. However, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines are comparatively higher than those emitted from modern gasoline engines. Therefore, reduction of diesel emitted pollutants and especially, PM and NOx without increase of specific fuel consumption or let alone improvement of diesel fuel economy is a difficult problem, which requires immediate and drastic actions to be taken.
Technical Paper

Development of a Simulation Model for Direct Injection Dual Fuel Diesel-Natural Gas Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0286
During the last years a great deal of effort has been made for the reduction of pollutant emissions from direct injection Diesel Engines. Towards these efforts engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of gaseous fuels as a supplement for liquid diesel fuel. These engines are referred to as dual combustion engines i.e. they use conventional diesel fuel and gaseous fuel as well. The ignition of the gaseous fuel is accomplished through the liquid fuel, which is auto-ignited in the same way as in common diesel engines. One of the fuels used is natural gas, which has a relatively high auto-ignition temperature. This is extremely important since the CR of most conventional diesel engines can be maintained. In these engines the released energy is produced partially from the combustion of natural gas and from the combustion of liquid diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Multi-Zone Model for the Description of Physical Processes in HCCI Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-0562
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have the potential of reducing NOx emissions as compared to conventional Diesel or SI engines. Soot emissions are also very low due to the premixed nature of combustion. However, the unburned hydrocarbon emissions are relatively high and the same holds for CO emissions. The formation of these pollutants, for a given fuel, is strongly affected by the temperature distribution as well as by the charge motion within the engine cylinder. The foregoing physical mechanisms determine the local ignition timing and burning rate of the charge affecting engine efficiency, performance and stability. Obviously the success of any model describing HCCI combustion depends on its ability to describe adequately both the chemistry of combustion and the physical phenomena, i.e. heat and mass transfer within the cylinder charge. In the present study a multi-zone model is developed to describe the heat and mass transfer mechanism within the cylinder.
X