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Technical Paper

Use of JP-8 Aviation Fuel and Biodiesel on a Diesel Engine

The present paper aims to discuss the quality characteristics of Jet Fuels used in the Greek market in comparison with fuels used in other countries and to evaluate jet fuels along with diesel and biodiesel on a diesel engine. To establish the quality characteristics for Jet Fuels of the Greek market, fuel samples were collected from the local refineries on a regular basis, thus monitoring the fuel quality fluctuation over time. JP8, along with diesel and biodiesel, were used alone and in mixtures on a single cylinder stationary diesel engine. Emissions and volumetric fuel consumption were measured under various loads.
Technical Paper

Tribological Evaluation of the Aviation Kerosene for Use in CI Engines

To reduce the fuel related logistic burden, NATO Armed Forces are advancing the use of a single fuel for both aircraft and ground equipment. To this end, F-34 is replacing distillate diesel fuel in many applications. Yet, unacceptable wear due to poor lubricity was illustrated by tests conducted with kerosene on High Frequency Reciprocating Rig. Therefore, HFRR tests were performed with fatty acid methyl esters of sunflower, palm, cotton-seed, tobacco-seed, olive, rape-seed and used frying oils, at volume concentrations from 0.05% to 0.6%. This study showed that the biodiesels used, produced a significant decrease in the wear scar diameter at concentrations of 0.2% to 0.4 %. Biodiesels derived from non-polyunsaturated oils, such as palm and olive gave better lubrication at certain concentrations.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Analysis of SI Engine Operation on Variable Composition Biogas-Hydrogen Blends Using a Quasi-Dimensional, Multi-Zone Combustion Model

In this work, a quasi-dimensional, multi-zone combustion model is analytically presented, for the prediction of performance and nitric oxide (NO) emissions of a homogeneous charge spark ignition (SI) engine, fueled with biogas-H2 blends of variable composition. The combustion model is incorporated into a closed cycle simulation code, which is also fully described. Combustion is modeled on the basis of turbulent entrainment theory and flame stretch concepts. In this context, the entrainment speed, by which unburned gas enters the flame region, is simulated by the turbulent burning velocity of a flamelet model. A flame stretch submodel is also included, in order to assess the flame response on the combined effects of curvature, turbulent strain and nonunity Lewis number mixture. As far as the burned gas is concerned, this is treated using a multi-zone thermodynamic formulation, to account for the spatial distribution of temperature and NO concentration inside the burned volume.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Aliphatic Amines and Tertiary Amides on the Lubrication Properties of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuels

The objective of this work was the assessment of aliphatic amines and tertiary dialkyl-amides as lubrication additives or extenders, on ultra - low sulfur diesel fuels. In order to evaluate the influence of two types of nitrogen compounds on the lubrication properties of ultra - low sulfur diesel fuels, nine distillation fractions produced by atmospheric distillation of a hydrotreated diesel fuel, were used as the base fuels. Five aliphatic amines and two tertiary amides were used as lubricating additives at five different concentrations i.e. 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0% by volume, on the nine base fuels. Tribological experiments were carried out on the High frequency Reciprocating test Rig (HFRR). The wear results showed that only four of the five aliphatic amines used, provide satisfactory HFRR mean wear scar diameter (WS 1.4) of less than 460 microns, and at the concentration levels of 1-2% by volume. The concentration levels below 1 % by volume had no effect on the fuel lubricity.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Biodiesel on PAHs, Nitro-PAHs and Oxy-PAHs Emissions from a Light Vehicle Operated Over the European and the Artemis Driving Cycles

This study examines the effects of neat soy-based biodiesel (B100) and its 50% v/v blend (B50) with low sulphur automotive diesel on vehicle PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) according to the European regulated technique. The vehicle was a Euro 2 compliant diesel passenger car, equipped with a 1.9 litre common-rail turbocharged direct injection engine and an oxidation catalyst. Emissions of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs were measured over the urban phase (UDC) and the extra-urban phase (EUDC) of the type approval cycle (NEDC). In addition, for evaluating realistic driving performance the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles (Urban, Road and Motorway) were used. Overall, 12 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, and 6 oxy-PAHs were determined. The results indicated that PAH emissions exhibited a reduction with biodiesel during all driving modes.
Technical Paper

Single Fuel Research Program Comparative Results of the Use of JP-8 Aviation Fuel versus Diesel Fuel on a Direct Injection and Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

During the last years a great effort has been made by many NATO nations to move towards the use of one military fuel for all the land-based military aircraft, vehicles and equipment employed on the military arena. This idea is known to as the Single Fuel Concept (SFC). The fuel selected for the idea of SFC is the JP-8 (F-34) military aviation fuel which is based upon the civil jet fuel F-35 (Jet A-1) with the inclusion of military additives possessing anti-icing and lubricating properties. An extended experimental investigation has been conducted in the laboratory of Thermodynamic and Propulsion Systems at the Hellenic Air Force Academy. This investigation was conducted with the collaboration of the respective laboratories of National Technical University of Athens and Hellenic Naval Academy as well.
Journal Article

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions of a Euro 4 SUV Operated with Diesel and Soy-based Biodiesel Blends

In this study, regulated, unregulated exhaust emissions and fuel consumption with ultra low sulphur diesel and soy-based biodiesel blends at proportions of 10 and 30% v/v have been investigated. A Euro 4 compliant SUV, equipped with a 2.2 litre common-rail diesel engine and an oxidation catalyst was tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) technique. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles which simulate urban, rural, and highway driving conditions in Europe. The regulated pollutants were characterized by determined NOx, PM, CO, and HC. CO2 was also quantified in the exhaust. Overall, 16 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, 6 oxy-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds and particulate alkanes ranged from C13 to C35 were determined in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Production of Biobased Lubricant Basestocks with Improved Performance

The ability of a catalyst to enhance the performance of synthesized biobased lubricant basestock was investigated in this study. Pomace olive oil, cottonseed oil, used frying oil and methyl oleate were utilized as starting materials for the production of the biobased lubricants and a two stages transesterification methodology was followed. Initially the oils were converted to their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters via methanolysis. The resulting methylesters were subsequently transesterified with TMP producing the desired oleochemical ester. These syntheses were carried out in the presence of either sodium methoxide or Ca/TEA alkoxide as catalysts. Following the purification phase, the synthesized esters were evaluated as potential biolubricants regarding their physicochemical properties such as viscosity index, pour point and acid value.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of the Availability Balance in an Internal Combustion Engine Cylinder

The current work uses a method developed by the authors for both combustion irreversibility and working medium availability computations in a high speed, naturally aspirated, four stroke, internal combustion engine cylinder. The objective of the study was to extrapolate already published results of the second-law analysis of diesel engine operation by studying parametrically the effect of main operating parameters such as engine speed of rotation, injection timing, and fuel composition. Extensive experimental data were available for the case of dodecane injection, which were used for the determination of the fuel reaction rate. Computationally, the same reaction rates were used for methane and methanol injection. The production rate of irreversibility during combustion was analytically calculated as a function of the fuel reaction rate with the combined use of first and second-law arguments and a chemical equilibrium hypothesis.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability Study of Biobased Lubricant Basestocks

One of the concerns for biolubricants is the improvement of their oxidation resistance. In this paper the oxidative behavior of seven different types of biobased lubricants basestocks is examined. The aim was to study their relative oxidation stability and also to investigate their response to various antioxidants. The renewable lubricants were treated with four antioxidant additives at a concentration of 0.5% wt. and a comparative assessments of the latters' effectiveness in suppressing the oxidation rate was carried out. Alterations in the acid value were examined as well as relative changes of the oxidized samples by FTIR spectroscopy. The oxidation stability was assessed by employing a Rapid Small Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT) apparatus according to the accelerated oxidation stability standard method ASTM D7545/EN16091. RSSOT is a relatively new method and thus the behaviour of biobased lubricants and antioxidant agents in this accelerated method has not been thoroughly examined.
Technical Paper

Monoglyceride Content in Marine Diesel Fuel-A Guide

Problems with the low-temperature operability performance of biodiesel in blends with petroleum diesel are infrequent, but continue to limit the use of biodiesel during winter months. A troubling aspect of this problem is that in some cases precipitates above the blend Cloud Point (CP) have been detected and have led to plugging of fuel filters and subsequent engine stalling, as well as plugging of fuel dispenser filters. Many researchers found that the saturated monoglyceride content was a main component of the material that was found on plugged fuel filters, as well as traces of Saturated DiGlycerides (SDG), were also present on the plugged fuel filters. This is the reason which forced the organization of standardization to suggest a procedure in order to predict the content of the Saturated MonoGlycerides (SMG) even with uncertainty which can vary from −50% to +50%. The model which was used will be the same as that which was introduced in the Annex C of EN 14214+A1:2013.
Technical Paper

Lubricity of Diesel Fuel Hydrocarbons and Surrogate Fuels

The aim of this study is to investigate the lubricity of hydrocarbons that constitute components of petroleum diesel fuel. A number of typical hydrocarbon compounds were selected as representative of the group types of alkanes (paraffins), cycloalkanes (naphthenes) and aromatics, similar to those that are present in diesel fuel. The lubricity of these substances was examined in a High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) apparatus according to the ISO 12156-1 standard method. Thereafter, a series of diesel surrogate fuel were prepared from the above substances based on literature data for diesel fuel composition and on the previously obtained results. These model fuels were assessed regarding their lubricating performance in order to evaluate how each individual component can affect the lubricity of the final fuel.
Journal Article

Impact of Simultaneous ETBE and Ethanol Addition on Motor Gasoline Properties

This study examines the impact of ETBE and ethanol addition on the main properties of motor gasoline. European Union mandates the use of biofuels in all transport fuels, according to the 2003/30/EC Directive. The addition of ethanol, a known octane enhancing component, in small proportions significantly increases the vapor pressure of the final gasoline, exceeding the maximum specification limits. ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) is on the other hand an excellent but expensive octane enhancing component with beneficial impact on vapor pressure of the final gasoline. This paper examines the ability of ETBE to act as a stabilizer in gasoline - ethanol blends. Two gasoline samples with different chemical compositions and characteristics were prepared by blending basic refinery components. In each sample, ETBE was added in concentrations of 2, 4, and 6 % V/V respectively. In each of these ETBE - gasoline blends, ethanol was added in concentrations from 1 to 6 % V/V in 1% steps.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Stabilizing Effect of n-Butanol on Diesel-Bioethanol Blends

In accordance to the current environmental policy of the European Union by 2020, 10% of the transport fuel in every country comes from renewable sources such as biofuels. One of the most popular biofuels, (bio) ethanol is a probable suitable candidate for addition in diesel fuel because of its cleaner combustion and the ability to reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants. However, its use presents some important problems, attributed mainly to its incompatibility with diesel fuel during mixing due to the difference in the polarity. For this reason, substances that act as stabilizers of these mixtures are used, one of the most suitable being butanol. This substance is compatible with diesel fuel and ethanol, acting as a chemical bridge between the two, but also exhibits positive combustion behavior, as it is also an oxygenate that can be produced from renewable sources as well. The aim of this work was to investigate the behavior of diesel-ethanol mixtures using butanol as co-solvent.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Fuel Composition on the Formation of Pollutants in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

A great deal of research is taking place at the present time in the field of diesel engines, especially regarding the emission of gaseous pollutants and soot. This research is essential for engine manufacturers since it is difficult for diesel engines to meet current standards regarding soot and nitric oxide emissions. The problem will become even more severe when the new legislation will be applicable requiring a 50% reduction of existing levels. Many manufacturers and researchers feel that engines will be difficult to meet this criterion without the use of other techniques such as gas aftertreatment or newly developed fuels (low sulfur content, etc.). The aim of this research is to examine the effect of fuel composition and physical properties on the mechanism of combustion and pollutants formation.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Stability and Ignition Quality of Diesel-Biodiesel-Butanol Blends

FAME is the most common renewable component of conventional automotive diesel. Despite the advantages, biodiesel is more susceptible to oxidative deterioration and due to its chemical composition as well as its higher affinity to water, is considered to be a favorable substrate for microorganisms. On the other hand, apart from biodiesel, alcohols are considered to be promising substitutes to conventional diesel fuel because they can offer higher oxygen concentration leading to better combustion characteristics and lower exhaust emissions. More specifically, n-butanol is a renewable alcohol demonstrating better blending capabilities and properties when it is added to diesel fuel, as its composition is closer to conventional fuel, when compared ethanol to for example. Taking into consideration the alleged disinfectant properties of alcohols, it would be interesting to examine also the microbial stability of blends containing n-butanol in various concentrations.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Oxidation Stability of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends using the Modified Rancimat Method

This study describes the effect of different types of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) on the oxidative stability of low and ultra low sulfur automotive diesel fuels. Eight different samples of FAME were employed to create blends of 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10% v/v with four different types of diesel fuels. The samples were analyzed using the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751). The aim of this paper was to evaluate the impact of biodiesel source material and biodiesel concentration in diesel fuel, on the oxidation stability of the final blend. Moreover, the effect of sulfur content and the presence of cracked stocks in the base diesel fuel, on the oxidation stability of the final blends were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a New Diagnostic Technique to Detect and Account for Load Variation during Cylinder Pressure Measurement of Large-Scale Four-Stroke Diesel Engines

High efficiency, power concentration and reliability are the main requirements from Diesel Engines that are used in most technical applications. This becomes more important with the increase of engine size. For this reason the aforementioned characteristics are of significant priority for both marine and power generation applications. To guarantee efficient engine operation and maximum power output, both research and commercial communities are increasingly interested in methods used for supervision, fault-detection and fault diagnosis of large scale Diesel Engines. Most of these methods make use of the measured cylinder pressure to estimate various critical operating parameters such as, brake power, fuel consumption, compression status, etc. The results obtained from the application of any diagnostic technique, used to assess the current engine operating condition and identify the real cause of the malfunction or fault, depend strongly on the quality of these data.
Technical Paper

Effect of Phenolic Type Antioxidant Additives on Microbial Stability of Biodiesel Fuel

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a variety of phenolic type antioxidant additives on the microbial stability of biodiesel and diesel/biodiesel blends. Six synthetic phenolic type antioxidant agents were added in FAME at concentrations up to 1000 ppm. Treated FAME was also blended with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel at a concentration of 7% v/v in order to examine the activity of the substances in the final blends. The oxidation stability in the presence of the phenolic compounds was determined by carrying out measurements under accelerated oxidation process in the Rancimat unit. The effectiveness of those antioxidant agents against microbial contamination in biodiesel fuel was studied under certain testing protocols for detecting microbiological activity in the fuel supply chain and for evaluating antimicrobials against fuel bio-deterioration.
Technical Paper

Effect of Metals in the Oxidation Stability and Lubricity of Biodiesel Fuel

The introduction to the European market of higher levels of biodiesel blends focuses the research interest on the compatibility problems of the diesel fuel distribution system. The influence of metals in the oxidation stability and lubricity of two different types of commercially available FAMEs (without antioxidant additive) was investigated. Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Tin (Sn), were added in the form of solid metals (heterogeneous catalysis in liquid phase oxidation) and examined for their impact on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel. Oxidation stability was determined by Rancimat accelerated oxidation method, according to European Standard EN14214. Additionally, in order to examine the effect of the above mentioned metals in the presence of antioxidant additive, BHT was added in both biodiesel samples and oxidation stability determinations were carried out, as well.