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Technical Paper

Study on Performance of Diesel Engine Applied with Emulsified Diesel Fuel: The Influence of Fuel Injection Timing and Water Contents

The application of emulsified fuel for diesel engines is expected to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of water content in emulsified fuel and fuel injection timing on diesel engine performance. The engine performance of emulsified fuel was compared with the water injection method. In the water injection test, water was injected to intake manifold and diesel fuel was directly injected into combustion chamber. Two emulsified fuels of which mixing ratio of water and emulsifier to diesel fuel were 15 and 30 vol.% were tested. Engine performance and exhaust gas emission of water injection method were almost similar to those of diesel fuel, so that water presented in combustion chamber had almost no influence on engine performance. Therefore, it can be considered that the micro explosion of fuel droplet enhanced the fuel atomization and mixing of fuel and air.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurement of Radical Behavior Under Knocking Operation, 1995

The purpose of this research was to obtain a better understanding of engine knocking phenomena. Measurements were made of the behavior of formaldehyde (HCHO), an important intermediate product of cool flame reactions, and of the HCO radical, characterized by distinctive light emission during blue flame reactions. The test engine was operated on a blended fuel (50 RON) of n-heptane and iso-octane. Simultaneous measurements were made of the behavior of HCHO and the OH radical using absorption spectroscopy and of the behavior of HCO and OH radicals using emission spectroscopy. Absorbance spectroscopic measurements revealed behavior thought to correspond to the passage of a cool flame and emission spectroscopic measurements showed behavior thought to correspond to the passage of a blue flame.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous measurements of absorption and emission in preflame reaction under knocking operation

There is an urgent need today to improve the thermal efficiency of spark- ignition (SI) engines in order to reduce carbon dioxide emission and conserve energy in an effort to prevent global warming. However, a major obstacle to improving thermal efficiency by raising the compression ratio of SI engine is the easily occurrence of engine knocking. The result of studies done by numerous researchers have shown that knocking is an abnormal combustion in which the unburned gas in the end zone of the combustion chamber autoignites. However, the combustion reaction mechanism from autoignition to the occurrence of knocking is still not fully understood. The study deals with the light absorption and emission behavior in the preflame reaction interval before hot flame reactions.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Engine Performance With Lean Mixture Ignited By Diesel Fuel Injection and Internal Egr

The uniform lean methanol-air mixture was provided to the diesel engine and was ignited by the direct diesel fuel injection. The internal EGR is added to this ignition method in order to activate the fuel in the mixture and to increase the mixture temperature. The test engine was a 4-stroke, single- cylinder direct-injection diesel engine. The cooling system was forced-air cooling and displacement volume was about 211 (cm3). The compression ratio was about 19.9:1. The experiment was made under constant engine speed of 3000 (r/min). The boost pressure was maintained at 101.3 (kPa). Five values of mass flow rate of diesel fuel injection were selected from 0.060 (g/s) to 0.167 (g/s) and five levels of back pressure: 0), 26.7, 53.3, 80.0 and 106.6 (kPa) were selected for the experiment. The effect of internal EGR is varied by the back pressure level.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance of Lean Methanol-Air Mixture Ignited by Diesel Fuel Injection Applied with Internal EGR

The uniform lean methanol-air mixture was provided to the diesel engine and was ignited by direct diesel fuel injection. In this study, the internal EGR is added to this ignition method in order to activate the fuel in the mixture and to increase the temperature of the mixture before the ignition. It is confirmed that the lean methanol-air mixture of air-fuel ratio between 130 and 18 could be ignited and burned when the back pressure of 80 [kPa] is added. The ignition and combustion characteristics can be improved by the internal EGR, however the engine performance and NOx emission deteriorated.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Gas Emissions of Lean Mixture Ignited by Direct Diesel Fuel Injection with Internal EGR

The uniform lean gasoline-air mixture was provided to the diesel engine and was ignited by the direct diesel fuel injection. In this study, the internal EGR is add to this ignition method in order to activate the fuel in the mixture before the ignition. It is confirmed that the lean mixture of air-fuel ratio between 150 and 40 could be ignited and burned by this ignition method when the back pressure of 80 [kPa] is added, and the burning period is shorted by internal EGR. However, as the back pressure increases, NOx concentration is increased by the high temperature residual gas.
Technical Paper

A Study on Influence of Forced Over Cooling on Diesel Engine Performance

The ignitability and engine performance of FAMEs at the cold condition were experimentally investigated by using two FAMEs, i.e. coconut oil methyl ester (CME) and soybean oil methyl ester (SME). The cold start test and forced over cooling test were conducted. In the forced over cooling test, engine was forced cooled by the injecting water mist to engine cooling fin. In the cold start test, the cylinder pressure of CME rose earliest because CME has a superior ignitability. The crank angle at ignitions of diesel fuel and CME were not so affected by the forced over cooling, however ignition timing of SME was remarkably delayed. In cases of forced over cooling, COV of maximum combustion pressure of CME was lower than that of normal air cooling condition. The forced over cooling has a potential to reduce NOx emission, however HC, CO and smoke concentrations were increased in a high load due to incomplete combustion.
Journal Article

A Study of Supercharged HCCI Combustion using In-cylinder Spectroscopic Techniques and Chemical Kinetic Calculation

A great deal of interest is focused on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion today as a combustion system enabling internal combustion engines to attain higher efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions. Because the air-fuel mixture is compression-ignited in an HCCI engine, control of the ignition timing is a key issue. Additionally, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the combustion chamber, it is necessary to control the resultant rapid combustion, especially in the high-load region. Supercharging can be cited as one approach that is effective in facilitating high-load operation of HCCI engines. Supercharging increases the intake air quantity to increase the heat capacity of the working gas, thereby lowering the combustion temperature for injection of the same quantity of fuel. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of supercharging on combustion characteristics in an HCCI engine.
Journal Article

A Study of HCCI Combustion Using Spectroscopic Measurements and Chemical Kinetic Simulations: Effects of Fuel Composition, Engine Speed and Cylinder Pressure on Low-temperature Oxidation Reactions and Autoignition

The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel.