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Technical Paper

Effect of EGR-Induced Hot Residual Gas on Combustion when Operating a Two-Stroke Engine on Alcohol Fuels

In this research, the effect of high-temperature residual gas, resulting from the application of a certain level of EGR, on combustion was investigated using a two-stroke engine and alcohol fuels (ethanol and methanol) and gasoline as the test fuels. Measurements were made of the light emission intensity of the OH radical on the intake and exhaust port sides of the combustion chamber and of the combustion chamber wall temperature (spark plug washer temperature) and the exhaust gas temperature. Data were measured and analyzed in a progression from normal combustion to autoignited combustion to preignition and to knocking operation.
Technical Paper

A Study on Ion Current and OH Radical Luminescence Behavior in a Two-Stroke Engine

In this research, an investigation was made of ion current and OH radical luminescence behavior in the progression from normal combustion to knocking operation. One pair each of an ion probe and a quartz observation window was fitted in the center and on the end of the combustion chamber. The peak values of the ion voltage drop and the OH radical emission intensity both increased as the cylinder head temperature and the cylinder pressure rose. It is possible to understand combustion conditions by analyzing measured waveformes of the ion voltage drop and the OH radical emission intensity.
Journal Article

A Study of the Behavior of In-Cylinder Pressure Waves under HCCI Knocking by using an Optically Accessible Engine

This study investigated the origin of knocking combustion accompanied by pressure wave and strong pressure oscillations in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Experiments were conducted with a two-stroke single cylinder optically accessible engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The test fuel used was n-heptane. The equivalence ratio and intake temperature were varied to induce a transition from moderate HCCI combustion to extremely rapid HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations. Local autoignition and pressure wave behavior under each set of operating conditions were investigated in detail on the basis of high-speed in-cylinder visualization and in-cylinder pressure analysis. As a result, under conditions where strong knocking occurs, a brilliant flame originates from the burned gas side in the process where the locally occurring autoignition gradually spreads to multiple locations.
Technical Paper

A Study of Streamer-Discharge-Assisted Autoignition Combustion using an Optically Accessible Engine

It is difficult to control the ignition timing of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines because they lack a physical means of igniting the mixture. Another issue of HCCI engines is their narrow operating range owing to the occurrence of misfiring at low loads and abnormal combustion at high loads. As a possible solution to these issues, this study focused on the generation of a streamer discharge using nonequilibrium plasma as a means of assisting HCCI combustion. A two-stroke engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area was used in this study. A primary reference fuel blend (50 RON) was used as the test fuel. The streamer discharge was continuously generated in the end-gas region during a 360 deg. interval from the scavenging stroke to the exhaust stroke using a spark plug from which the ground electrode had been removed. Experiments were conducted in which the applied voltage of the streamer discharge was varied to investigate its effect on combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of HCCI Combustion Using a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine with a High Compression Ratio

In this study, it was shown that Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine, operating under the conditions of a high compression ratio, wide open throttle (WOT) and a lean mixture, could be simulated by raising the compression ratio of a 2-stroke engine. On that basis, a comparison was then made with the characteristics of Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC), the HCCI process that is usually accomplished in 2-stroke engines under the conditions of a low compression ratio, partial throttle and a large quantity of residual gas. One major difference observed between HCCI combustion and ATAC was their different degrees of susceptibility to the occurrence of cool flames, which was attributed to differences in the residual gas state. It was revealed that the ignition characteristics of these two combustion processes differed greatly in relation to the fuel octane number.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of HCCI and ATAC Combustion Characteristics Based on Experimentation and Simulations Influence of the Fuel Octane Number and Internal EGR on Combustion

Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion processes can be broadly divided between a CAI process that is applied to four-stroke engines and a CAI process that is applied to two-stroke engines. The former process is generally referred to as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the later process as Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC). The region of stable engine operation differs greatly between these two processes, and it is thought that the elucidation of their differences and similarities could provide useful information for expanding the operation region of HCCI combustion. In this research, the same two-stroke engine was operated under both the ATAC and HCCI combustion processes to compare their respective combustion characteristics. The results indicated that the ignition timing was less likely to change in the ATAC process in relation to changes in the fuel octane number than it was in the HCCI combustion process.