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Technical Paper

Water Jacket Spacer for Improvement of Cylinder Bore Temperature Distribution

2005-04-11
2005-01-1156
For reduction of fuel consumption, a new device “Water Jacket Spacer” which improves temperature distribution of a cylinder block bore wall was developed. In the case of a conventional cylinder block, coolant flow concentrates at the bottom and middle region of the water jacket. While temperature of the upper bore wall is high (due to high-temperature combustion gas) the temperature of the lower bore wall is low, since its only function is to support the piston. When the developed spacer is inserted into a water jacket, the coolant flow concentrates at the upper part of the jacket. As a result, cooling ability to the upper bore wall was improved and temperature of lower bore wall was increased, thereby reducing fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Verification of Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Application of Highly Effective Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor to HV Inverter

2016-04-05
2016-01-1230
A prototype power control unit (PCU) was manufactured using silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductors (diodes and transistors), which have low power loss when switching on and off. This PCU was installed in a hybrid vehicle (HV) and driven on a test course and chassis dynamometer. The test results confirmed a fuel efficiency improvement of about 5 percent.
Technical Paper

Valve Train Dynamic Analysis and Validation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1457
In order to reduce engine development timing and cost, a numerical calculation has been developed by Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Technical Center to evaluate valve train systems. The goal is to predict valve_bounce speed, valve displacement, hydraulic lash adjuster motion and strain in the rocker arm. The numerical procedure combines finite element model and multi-body dynamic analysis. Normally, strain calculation is a two-step process. In the first step, engineers obtain the excitation from the dynamic analysis. In the second step, engineers use the forcing function from dynamic analysis to calculate strain and stress. The new approach in this paper, using ADAMS, calculates dynamic load and recover strain simultaneously. As the flexibility of the moving part (for example rocker arm) is taken into account in the equations of motion, ADAMS will calculate the modal strain. Based on the modal strain, the strain or stress at any given node(s) can be recovered.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Diesel Piston Bowl Using Phosphor Thermometry

2009-09-13
2009-24-0033
Phosphor thermometry was used during fuel injection in an optical engine with the glass piston of reentrant type. SiO2 coated phosphor particle was used for the gas-phase temperature measurements, which gave much less background signal. The measurements were performed in motored mode, in combustion mode with injection of n-heptane and in non-combustion mode with injection of iso-octane. In the beginning of injection period, the mean temperature of each injection cases was lower than that of the motored case, and temperature of iso-octane injection cases was even lower than that of n-heptane injection cases. This indicates, even if vaporization effect seemed to be the same at both injection cases, the effect of temperature decrease changed due to the chemical reaction effect for the n-heptane cases. Chemical reaction seems to be initiated outside of the fuel liquid spray and the position was moving towards the fuel rich area as the time proceeds.
Journal Article

Toyota's Integrated Drive Power Control System for Downsized Turbocharged Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1636
New engine controls have been developed for the turbocharged Lexus NX200t to improve driving power by reducing engine torque output lag. Drive power management functions have been centralized in an integrated drive power control system. The newly developed controls minimize the potential reduction in drivability associated with the adoption of a turbocharged engine while improving fuel efficiency. General driveability issues commonly associated with a turbocharged engine include sudden increases in drive power due to the response lag of the turbocharger, and higher shifting frequencies if this response lag triggers a disturbed accelerator operation pattern by the driver. The developed technologies detect and control sudden increases in drive power to create the optimum drive power map, and reduce unnecessary shifts even if the driver's accelerator operation is disturbed.
Technical Paper

Toyota Newly Developed 2VZ-FE Type Engine

1988-11-01
881775
Newly developed 2VZ-FE engine for CAMRY is a 2.5-liter water cooled and V-type 6-cylinder engine exported from TOYOTA for the first time. This engine has the TOYOTA original 4-valve DOHC system. That is, exhaust camshafts driven by intake camshafts using scissors gears. By its compact configuration with the gear driven camshafts, this V-type 6-cylinder engine is mounted on a front-wheel-drive vehicle which originally had an in-line 4-cylinder engine. By increasing IVZ-FE engine displacement (for domestic), compact pentroof-type combustion chambers, optimum air-fuel ratio and ignition timing by TCCS (TOYOTA Computer Controlled System) and other technologies, a high performance 153HP/5600rpm and a large torque 155ft·lbs/4400rpm have been achieved with a low fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0502
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) by using a heat pump system in cold weather. The advantage of an HV is a high efficiency of the vehicle system since an electric motor and an engine are coupled and optimally controlled. However, in the conventional HV, we see the fuel economy degradation in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin by using an engine results in a low efficiency of the vehicle system. To improve the fuel economy degradation, in this study, a heat pump is used and combined with an engine for the thermal management. The heat pump with an electrically driven compressor pumps heat from ambient into a water-cooled condenser. The heat which is generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce the emission and the cabin needs heat for thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Study on Spray Design for Small-Bore Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0740
1 Recently, demand for small-bore compact vehicle engines has been increasing from the standpoint of further reducing CO2 emissions. The generalization and formulation of combustion processes, including those related to emissions formation, based on a certain similarity of physical phenomena regardless of engine size, would be extremely beneficial for the unification of development processes for various sizes of engines. The objective of this study is to clarify what constraints are necessary for engine/nozzle specifications and injection conditions to achieve the same combustion characteristics (such as heat release rate and emissions) in diesel engines with different bore sizes.
Technical Paper

The Oil Flow Measuring Method in Engine Lubrication

1999-10-25
1999-01-3467
We have developed a method by which the oil flow rate can be measured by using a hot-wire sensor that could be installed in the passages of actual engine lubricant oil. This measuring method proves to have a ±5% accuracy and a 40kHz response that enables ‘real time’ function. Thus, observation of (1) the effect of bearing clearance, and (2) the fluctuating mechanism of the oil flow per 1 degree crank angle from the point of engine start-up to 6000r/min and full load can be achieved, and the timing and quantity of intermittent oil-jet from the oil hole in connecting rod were ascertained.
Technical Paper

The New Toyota Inline 4 Cylinder 1.8L ESTEC 2ZR-FXE Gasoline Engine for Hybrid Car

2016-04-05
2016-01-0684
The engine in the new fourth generation Prius carries over the same basic structure as the 2ZR-FXE used in the third generation and incorporates various refinements to enhance fuel efficiency. Called the ESTEC 2ZR-FXE, the new engine incorporates various fuel efficient technologies to improve combustion characteristics, knocking, and heat management, while also reducing friction. As a result of this meticulous approach to enhancing fuel efficiency, the new engine is the first gasoline engine in the world to achieve a maximum thermal efficiency of 40%. This paper describes the fuel efficient technologies incorporated into this engine.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Gasoline Metallic Additives on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

2018-04-03
2018-01-0936
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is used as an octane-enhancing metallic additive for unleaded gasoline which can prevent engine knock by proactive reaction with the hydrocarbon free radicals before starting the auto-ignition of hydrocarbons. However it has been pointed out that MMT causes automotive catalysts clogging and spark plug severely fouling. Therefore, many countries have fuel standards that prohibit or limit the usage of MMT. Nevertheless, some countries still use MMT as there are no restrictions imposed by fuel standards. As mentioned in several papers, metallic additives of engine oil such as calcium cause an abnormal combustion phenomenon called low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in turbocharged spark ignition engines. In contrast, the effect of metallic additives of gasoline such as MMT on LSPI has not been studied.
Technical Paper

Study of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Exhaust System

1990-02-01
900164
An investigation was conducted into pressure pulsation in the exhaust port, which greatly affects volumetric efficiency and engine performance. From experiments using a single blow-down generator, it was established that the amplitude of the pressure pulsation increases as the manifold branch is lengthened and that large negative pressure synchronized with the timing of valve overlap can be obtained if a proper branch length is used. The performance of a 2ℓ test engine was optimized by varying the length of both the manifold branches and front pipe forks. It was found that whereas front pipe fork length affects engine performance over only a narrow range of engine speed, optimizing manifold branch length results in a considerable improvement over a wide engine speed range. In the course of optimizing the exhaust pipe manifold length of this two-degree-of-freedom exhaust system, abnormal exhaust noises were emitted at specific engine speeds during deceleration.
Technical Paper

Study of Mileage-Related Formaldehyde Emission from Methanol Fueled Vehicles

1990-02-01
900705
In order to determine the main factors causing the mileage-related increase in formaldehyde emission from methanol-fueled vehicles, mileage was accumulated on three types of vehicle, each of which had a different air-fuel calibration system. From exhaust emission data obtained during and after the mileage accumulation, it was found that lean burn operation resulted in by far the highest formaldehyde emission increase. An investigation into the reason for the rise in engine-out formaldehyde emission revealed that deposits in the combustion chamber emanating from the lubricating oil promotes formaldehyde formation. Furthermore it was learnt that an increase in engine-out NOx emissions promotes partial oxidation of unburned methanol in the catalyst, leading to a significant increase in catalyst-out formaldehyde emission.
Journal Article

Study of Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted Spark Ignition Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1218
This paper analyzes low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI), a sudden pre-ignition phenomenon that occurs in downsized boosted gasoline engines in low engine speed high-load operation regions. This research visualized the in-cylinder state before the start of LSPI combustion and observed the behavior of particles, which are thought to be the ignition source. The research also analyzed pre-ignition by injecting deposit flakes and other combustible particulate substances into the combustion chamber. The analysis found that these particles require at least two combustion cycles to reach a glowing state that forms an ignition source. As a result, deposits peeling from combustion chamber walls were identified as a new mechanism causing pre-ignition. Additionally, results also suggested that the well-known phenomenon in which the LSPI frequency rises in accordance with greater oil dilution may also be explained by an increase in deposit generation.
Technical Paper

Strain and Motion Measurement for Piston, Piston Ring and Connecting Rod of High Speed Running Engines using New Digital Telemeter

2008-04-14
2008-01-1042
The authors have developed a measurement technique equipped with new digital telemeter for strain, motion and temperature of engine parts under high speed running operation with high accuracy. This telemeter has an original signal processing method in which the sensor outputs are directly converted to digital signals without conventional amplifiers and A/D converters. This telemeter enables multipoint measurements at high engine speed in small gasoline engines because of its compactness and lightweight. And this enables long hours of engine test without concern over battery life because of its low power consumption and self-contained power generation. We applied new developed digital telemeter to several measurements and analysis on the piston, piston ring and connecting rod.
Technical Paper

Small Bore Diesel Engine Combustion Concept

2015-04-14
2015-01-0788
Small bore diesel engines often adopt a two-valve cylinder head and a non-central injector layout to expand the port flow passage area. This non-central injector layout causes asymmetrical gas flow and fuel distribution, resulting in worse heat losses and a less homogenous fuel-air mixture than an equivalent four-valve cylinder head layout with a central injector. This paper describes the improvement of piston bowl geometry to achieve a more homogeneous gas flow and fuel-air mixture. This concept reduced fuel consumption by 2.5% compared to the original piston bowl geometry, while also reducing NOx emissions by 10%.
Technical Paper

Research on the Measures for Improving Cycle-to-Cycle Variations under High Tumble Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0694
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society. An effective way for accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid and conventional vehicles in recent years. Toyota has been introducing these technologies as ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion). Improving cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion, in addition to fast combustion is essential for achieving high engine thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Research of the DI Diesel Spray Characteristics at High Temperature and High Pressure Ambient

2007-04-16
2007-01-0665
In order to clarify the diesel fuel spray characteristics inside the cylinder, we developed two novel techniques, which are preparation of same level of temperature and pressure ambient as inside cylinder and quantitative measurement of vapor concentration. The first one utilizes combustion-type constant-volume chamber (inner volume 110cc), which allows 5 MPa and 873K by igniting the pre-mixture (n-pentane and air) with two spark plugs. In the second technique, TMPD vapor concentration is measured by using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence method (LIEF). The concentration is compensated by investigation of the influence of ambient pressure (from 3 to 5 MPa) and temperature (from 550 to 900 K) on TMPD fluorescence intensity. By using two techniques, we investigated the influence of nozzle hole diameter, injection pressure and ambient condition on spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Research of Knocking Deterioration due to Accumulated Carbon Deposits on Piston Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-1141
The quantity of heavy components in fuel is increasing as automotive fuels diversify, and engine oil formulations are becoming more complex. These trends result in the formation of larger amounts of carbon deposits as reaction byproducts during combustion, potentially worsening the susceptibility of the engine to knock [1]. The research described in this paper aimed to identify the mechanism that causes knocking to deteriorate due to carbon deposits in low to medium engine load ranges, which are mainly used when the vehicle drives off and accelerates. With this objective, the cylinder temperature and pressure with and without deposits were measured, and it was found that knocking deteriorates in a certain range of ignition timing.
Journal Article

Reduction of Heat Loss and Improvement of Thermal Efficiency by Application of “Temperature Swing” Insulation to Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0661
The reduction of the heat loss from the in-cylinder gas to the combustion chamber wall is one of the key technologies for improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. This paper describes an experimental verification of the “temperature swing” insulation concept, whereby the surface temperature of the combustion chamber wall follows that of the transient gas. First, we focus on the development of “temperature swing” insulation materials and structures with the thermo-physical properties of low thermal conductivity and low volumetric heat capacity. Heat flux measurements for the developed insulation coating show that a new insulation material formed from silica-reinforced porous anodized aluminum (SiRPA) offers both heat-rejecting properties and reliability in an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, a laser-induced phosphorescence technique was used to verify the temporal changes in the surface temperature of the developed insulation coating.
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