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Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Clean Combustion Technology Combining a Low-Temperature and Premixed Combustion Concept for Meeting Future Emission Standards

Experimental investigations were conducted with a direct-injection diesel engine to improve exhaust emission, especially nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), without increasing fuel consumption. As a result of this work, a new combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK) combustion, has been developed that reduces NOx and smoke simultaneously through low-temperature combustion and premixed combustion, respectively. The characteristics of a new combustion concept were investigated using a single cylinder DI diesel engine and combustion photographs. The low compression ratio, EGR cooling and high injection pressure was applied with a multi-cylinder test engine to accomplish premixed combustion at high load region. Combustion chamber specifications have been optimized to avoid the increase of cold-start HC emissions due to a low compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Turbulence and Cycle-by-Cycle Variation of Mean Velocity Generated by Swirl and Tumble Flow and Their Effects on Combustion

Combinations of swirl flow and tumble flow generated by 13 types of swirl control valve were tested by using both impulse steady flow rig and LDV. Comparison between the steady flow characteristics and the result of LDV measurement under motoring condition shows that tumble flow generates turbulence in combustion chamber more effectively than swirl flow does, and that swirling motion reduces the cycle by cycle variation of mean velocity in combustion chamber which tends to be generated by tumbling motion. Performance tests are also carried out under the condition of homogeneous charge. Tumble flow promotes the combustion speed more strongly than expected from its turbulence intensity measured by LDV. It is also shown that lean limit air fuel ratio does not have a strong relation with cycle variation of mean velocity but with turbulence intensity.
Technical Paper

Total Gas/Effective Fuel Ratio Predicts Coast Surge in Emission-Control Vehicles

In the course of developing a low-emission manual transmission vehicle, coast surge in the fore-and-aft direction resulting from the installation of certain emission-control devices was sometimes experienced immediately after the initiation of vehicle deceleration. Our investigation revealed that this vehicle surge was caused by combustion irregularities in a sequence of combustion-misfire-intense combustion events occurring every several cycles. A new combustibility standard. Gt/Feff, defined as the ratio of total cylinder mixture weight Gt to effective fuel weight Feff, was found to predict combustibility and irregular combustion over the entire mixture range. As a result, driveability during deceleration was improved by modifying key emission-control components.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Computation of the Effects of the Swirl Ratio in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines on NOx and Soot Emissions

Three-dimensional computation has been applied to analyze combustion and emission characteristics in direct-injection diesel engines. A computational code called TurboKIVA was used to investigate the effects of the swirl ratio, one of the fundamental factors related to combustion control, on combustion characteristics and NOx and soot emissions. The code was first modified to calculate soot formation and oxidation and the precise behavior of fuel drops on the combustion chamber wall. As a result of improving calculation accuracy, good agreement was obtained between the measured and predicted pressure, heat release rate and NOx and soot emissions. Using this modified version of TurboKIVA, the effects of the swirl ratio on NOx and soot emissions were investigated. The computational results showed that soot emissions were reduced with a higher swirl ratio. However, a further increase in the swirl ratio produced greater soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Imaging Technology using a Thermoelectric Infrared Sensor

This paper describes a low-cost 48 × 48 element thermal imaging camera intended for use in measuring the temperature in a car interior for advanced air conditioning systems. The compact camera measures 46 × 46 × 60 mm. It operates under a program stored in the central processing unit and can measure the interior temperature distribution with an accuracy of ±0.7°C in range from 0 to 40°C. The camera includes a thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) housed in a low-cost vacuum-sealed package. The FPA is fabricated with the conventional IC manufacturing process and micromachining technology. The chip is 6.5 × 6.5 mm in size and achieves high sensitivity of 4,300 V/W, which is higher than the performance reported for any other thermopile. This high performance has been achieved by optimizing the sensor's thermal isolation structure and a precisely patterned Au-black absorber that attains high infrared absorptivity of more than 90%.
Technical Paper

The Nissan 2.4L In-Line 4-Cylinder Engine

Nissan's new 2.4-liter in-line, 4-cylinder gasoline engine, the “KA24E,” was developed for the worldwide automobile market, but exclusively for the North American market. It has been released for Nissan's new 1989 model, high-performance sports car, the “240SX”, and will also be mounted in such forthcoming models as the new 1990 “AXXESS”. The major objectives in developing this new engine were to achieve high performance at practical driving speeds, especially at low- and middle-engine speeds, quiet engine operation, reliability, fuel economy and serviceability, all of which are essential factors in daily driving. For realizing these objectives, multi-valves, aerodynamic intake ports, a high-rigidity cylinder block, a silent single timing chain, and hydraulic valve lash adjusters were incorporated into this engine. Furthermore, to develop the engine, almost all components were redesigned using computer design techniques, and checked by extensive testing.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Longer Stroke on Improving Fuel Economy of a Multiple-Link VCR Engine

Some automakers have been studying variable compression ratio (VCR) technology as one possible way of improving fuel economy. In previous studies, we have developed a VCR mechanism of a unique multiple-link configuration that achieves a piston stroke characterized by semi-sinusoidal oscillation and lower piston acceleration at top dead center than on conventional mechanisms. By controlling compression ratio with this multiple-link VCR mechanism so that it optimally matches any operating condition, the mechanism has demonstrated that both lower fuel consumption and higher output power are simultaneously possible. However, it has also been observed that fuel consumption does not reduce further once the compression ratio reached a certain level. This study focused on the fact that the piston-stroke characteristic obtained with the multiple-link mechanism is suitable to a longer stroke.
Technical Paper

The Development of Second Generation Ceramic Turbocharger Rotor - Further Improvements in Reliability

Nissan has developed a second generation ceramic turbocharger rotor which provides greater reliability and higher performance than a conventional ceramic rotor. The new rotor is made of silicon nitride, which has demonstrated sufficient strength in vehicle applications. The bonding technique for joining the ceramic rotor to the metal shaft has been confirmed through experimentation to have sufficient reliability. The second generation rotor is featured by the low stress design and higher dynamic strength, and two factors contribute to its higher reliability. The rotor shape was optimized on the basis of results obtained in two analyses of particle impact resistance and applied combined stress. Test results show that the reliability of the second generation rotor have been substantially improved over those of the conventional rotor now being used on production vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Application of Image Processing to Laser Displacement and Strain Analysis

New image processing procedures for speckle photography and holographic interferometry are described. The algorithm for speckle photography measures the displacement value and direction automatically within the accuracy of ±5% over a range of 10 µm to 150 µm. This algorithm has adopted the Maximum Entropy Method to measure fringe intervals with high accuracy. The algorithm for holographic interferometry detects the fringe line and determines the displacement distribution with an operator's assist. Through the experiments, it was shown that these procedures are effective and accurate for vibration and deformation analysis.
Technical Paper

Technique for Analyzing Swirl Injectors of Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

This paper describes the numerical and experimental approaches that were applied to study swirl injectors that are widely used in direct-injection gasoline engines. As the numerical approach, the fuel and air flow inside an injector was first analyzed by using a two-phase flow analysis method [VOF (Volume of Fluid) model]. A time-series analysis was made of the flow though the injector and also of the air cavity that forms at the nozzle and influences fuel atomization. The calculated results made clear the process from initial spray formation to liquid film formation. Spray droplet formation was then analyzed with the synthesized spheroid particle (SSP) method. As the experimental approach, in order to measure the cavity factor that represents the liquid film thickness, nozzle exit flow velocities were measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV).
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.
Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Study of an Integrated Diesel Engine-CVT Control Algorithm for Improving Drivability and Exhaust Emission Performance

Diesel engines have attracted more attention in recent years as one means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motor vehicles. One of the major issues for diesel engines is exhaust emissions performance. Diesel engines also face various difficulties in providing the driving force demanded by the driver because of their greater inertia than that of gasoline engines. Meanwhile, continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) have been popularized as gearboxes that execute ratio changes continuously without generating shift shock. The aim of this research is to achieve higher levels of drivability and exhaust emissions performance by mating a CVT to a diesel engine and making maximum use of the continuous ratio change capability. An integrated engine-CVT control algorithm that can freely set the driving force and also the engine operating conditions for generating that driving force has been developed through this study.
Technical Paper

Stabilized Combustion in a Spark Ignited Engine through a Long Spark Duration

An investigation has been done on the relationship between spark ignition characteristics and combustion stability in a gasoline engine. The spark discharge parameters examined were the spark current, energy, and duration. It has been found that lengthening the spark discharge duration is particularly effective in achieving stabilized combustion. A longer spark duration provides a continued supply of electric energy as kinetic energy to the mixture around the spark gap. The analytical results of a constant volume combustion chamber test verify that a longer spark duration promotes flame initiation and makes reliable flame propagation possible. The length of the spark duration is regarded as the period from ignition to the onset of combustion pressure rise. The results of a combustion pressure analysis reveal that the spark duration must be longer than the heat release delay.
Technical Paper

Sources of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Direct Injection Diesel Engine

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the mechanisms of unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a small direct - injection (DI) diesel engine. HC emission levels of small DI diesel engines are considerably higher than those of corresponding indirect - injection (IDI) diesel engines, even when sacless injection nozzles that are effective in reducing HC emissions are installed on them. In this study, analytical engine tests were performed to evaluate the relative significance of various potential sources of HC emissions from a small DI diesel engine equipped with sacless type injectors.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of In-Cylinder Temperature and Residual Gas Concentration in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug by Wavelength Modulation Infrared Absorption

This paper presents a new measurement technique for in-cylinder gas temperature and residual gas concentration during the compression stroke of an internal combustion (IC) engine. This technique is based on the infrared absorption of water vapor by a wavelength modulated laser. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was adopted to enable the short-path measurements over a wide range of temperatures and pressures corresponding to the late compression stroke in a typical automotive engine. The WMS-2f signal is detected through a bandpass filter at a width of 7.5 kHz, enabling crank angle-resolved measurements. The temperature is determined from the ratio of optical absorption for two overtone transitions of water vapor in the intake gas mixture, and the H2O concentration is determined from this inferred temperature and the absorption for one of the transitions.
Technical Paper

Second Generation of High-Response V6 Engine Series (3.0 and 3.5 Liters)

Since the VQ engine series of lightweight, compact, low friction and high response engines was released in 1994, they have been rated highly both at home and abroad. Two new 3.0-liter and 3.5-liter V6 engines have been developed as the second generation of the VQ engine and introduced into the North American market. Continuing the characteristics of the first generation, this new VQ engine series achieves a performance figure of 98Nm/L as a result of adopting part shapes defined with a three-dimensional analysis method. The new VQ30DE engine adopts a plastic intake manifold which incorporates a variable induction system with a rotary valve. The new VQ35DE engine adopts a continuously variable valve timing control system and a long branch intake manifold with an inertial induction system. It also incorporates a new concept piston and a hot coined connecting rod to reduce its reciprocating inertial mass.
Technical Paper

Research on a Variable Swirl Intake Port for 4-Valve High-Speed DI Diesel Engines

A variable swirl intake port system for 4 valves/cylinder direct injection diesel engines was developed. This system combines two mutually independent intake ports, one of which is a helical port for generating an ultra-high swirl ratio and the other is a tangential port for generating a low swirl ratio. The tangential port incorporates a swirl control valve that controls the swirl ratio by varying the flow rate. To investigate the performance of the intake port system, steady-state flow tests were conducted in parallel with three-dimensional computations. In conducting the steady-state flow tests, it was found that a paddle wheel flow sensor was not suitable for evaluating the characteristics of the high-swirl port and that it was necessary to use an impulse swirl flow meter.