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Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Clean Combustion Technology Combining a Low-Temperature and Premixed Combustion Concept for Meeting Future Emission Standards

Experimental investigations were conducted with a direct-injection diesel engine to improve exhaust emission, especially nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), without increasing fuel consumption. As a result of this work, a new combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK) combustion, has been developed that reduces NOx and smoke simultaneously through low-temperature combustion and premixed combustion, respectively. The characteristics of a new combustion concept were investigated using a single cylinder DI diesel engine and combustion photographs. The low compression ratio, EGR cooling and high injection pressure was applied with a multi-cylinder test engine to accomplish premixed combustion at high load region. Combustion chamber specifications have been optimized to avoid the increase of cold-start HC emissions due to a low compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Turbulence and Cycle-by-Cycle Variation of Mean Velocity Generated by Swirl and Tumble Flow and Their Effects on Combustion

Combinations of swirl flow and tumble flow generated by 13 types of swirl control valve were tested by using both impulse steady flow rig and LDV. Comparison between the steady flow characteristics and the result of LDV measurement under motoring condition shows that tumble flow generates turbulence in combustion chamber more effectively than swirl flow does, and that swirling motion reduces the cycle by cycle variation of mean velocity in combustion chamber which tends to be generated by tumbling motion. Performance tests are also carried out under the condition of homogeneous charge. Tumble flow promotes the combustion speed more strongly than expected from its turbulence intensity measured by LDV. It is also shown that lean limit air fuel ratio does not have a strong relation with cycle variation of mean velocity but with turbulence intensity.
Technical Paper

Total Gas/Effective Fuel Ratio Predicts Coast Surge in Emission-Control Vehicles

In the course of developing a low-emission manual transmission vehicle, coast surge in the fore-and-aft direction resulting from the installation of certain emission-control devices was sometimes experienced immediately after the initiation of vehicle deceleration. Our investigation revealed that this vehicle surge was caused by combustion irregularities in a sequence of combustion-misfire-intense combustion events occurring every several cycles. A new combustibility standard. Gt/Feff, defined as the ratio of total cylinder mixture weight Gt to effective fuel weight Feff, was found to predict combustibility and irregular combustion over the entire mixture range. As a result, driveability during deceleration was improved by modifying key emission-control components.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Computation of the Effects of the Swirl Ratio in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines on NOx and Soot Emissions

Three-dimensional computation has been applied to analyze combustion and emission characteristics in direct-injection diesel engines. A computational code called TurboKIVA was used to investigate the effects of the swirl ratio, one of the fundamental factors related to combustion control, on combustion characteristics and NOx and soot emissions. The code was first modified to calculate soot formation and oxidation and the precise behavior of fuel drops on the combustion chamber wall. As a result of improving calculation accuracy, good agreement was obtained between the measured and predicted pressure, heat release rate and NOx and soot emissions. Using this modified version of TurboKIVA, the effects of the swirl ratio on NOx and soot emissions were investigated. The computational results showed that soot emissions were reduced with a higher swirl ratio. However, a further increase in the swirl ratio produced greater soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue Life of Exhaust Manifolds Predicted by Simulation

A combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element (FE) analysis approach has been developed to simulate in the early stages of design the temperature distribution and estimate the thermal fatigue life of an engine exhaust manifold. To simulate the temperature distribution under actual operating conditions, we considered the external and internal flow fields. Digital mock-ups of the vehicle and engine were used to define the geometry of the engine compartment. External-air-flow simulation using in-house CFD code was used to predict the flow fields in the engine compartment and the heat transfer coefficients between the air and the exhaust manifold wall at various vehicle speeds. Unsteady-gas-flow calculation using the STAR-CD thermal- fluids analysis code was to predict the heat transfer coefficients between the exhaust gas and the manifold wall under various operating conditions.
Technical Paper

The Turbocharged 2.8 Liter Engine for the Datsun 280ZX

Nissan’s new 2.8 liter in-line 6-cylinder turbocharged engine was developed for Che Datsun 280ZX in order to achieve higher performance and improved fuel economy. The Electronic Concentrated Engine Control System (ECCS), controlled by microprocessor, is provided for this 2.8 liter turbocharged engine. ECCS controls fuel injection, ignition timing, EGR rate and idling speed. It solved the problems related to power and fuel economy by optimizing the control parameters. Further, this system contains a barometric pressure compensator and a detonation controller; thus, the performance of this engine is efficient over a wide range of circumstances and fuel octane ratings. During the development of the engine, computer simulation was employed to predict engine performance and select turbocharger size, valve timing and other important factors.
Technical Paper

The Nissan 2.4L In-Line 4-Cylinder Engine

Nissan's new 2.4-liter in-line, 4-cylinder gasoline engine, the “KA24E,” was developed for the worldwide automobile market, but exclusively for the North American market. It has been released for Nissan's new 1989 model, high-performance sports car, the “240SX”, and will also be mounted in such forthcoming models as the new 1990 “AXXESS”. The major objectives in developing this new engine were to achieve high performance at practical driving speeds, especially at low- and middle-engine speeds, quiet engine operation, reliability, fuel economy and serviceability, all of which are essential factors in daily driving. For realizing these objectives, multi-valves, aerodynamic intake ports, a high-rigidity cylinder block, a silent single timing chain, and hydraulic valve lash adjusters were incorporated into this engine. Furthermore, to develop the engine, almost all components were redesigned using computer design techniques, and checked by extensive testing.
Technical Paper

The New Nissan 1.7 Liter 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine

The new Nissan 1.7 liter 4 cylinder diesel engine has been developed to meet the social requirements for energy conservation. The main objective was to improve fuel economy without sacrificing driveability, and this has been achieved by minimizing engine weight, reducing mechanical friction loss and optimizing the combustion system. The CA series gasoline engine, which is known for its light weight, was chosen as the base engine for dieselization. The swirl chamber combustion system used for the LD28 engine was modified to satisfy the requirements for high power, good fuel economy and low noise. Engine noise has been reduced with the aid of several analytical methods such as laser holography. Special attention has been paid to the reduction of diesel knock which is most offensive to the ear. To install this engine in a small FWD vehicle transversely, much effort went into the minimizing of the engine length and width.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Longer Stroke on Improving Fuel Economy of a Multiple-Link VCR Engine

Some automakers have been studying variable compression ratio (VCR) technology as one possible way of improving fuel economy. In previous studies, we have developed a VCR mechanism of a unique multiple-link configuration that achieves a piston stroke characterized by semi-sinusoidal oscillation and lower piston acceleration at top dead center than on conventional mechanisms. By controlling compression ratio with this multiple-link VCR mechanism so that it optimally matches any operating condition, the mechanism has demonstrated that both lower fuel consumption and higher output power are simultaneously possible. However, it has also been observed that fuel consumption does not reduce further once the compression ratio reached a certain level. This study focused on the fact that the piston-stroke characteristic obtained with the multiple-link mechanism is suitable to a longer stroke.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Belt-Drive CVT Fluid on the Friction Coefficient Between Metal Components

A block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine (LFW-1) was used as a test method for making fundamental evaluations of the effect of the Belt-Drive Continuously Variable Transmission(B-CVT) fluid on the friction coefficient between the belt and pulleys. The results confirmed that this method can simulate the friction phenomena between the belt and pulleys of an actual transmission. The mechanism whereby ZDDP and some Ca detergents improve the torque capacity of a B-CVT was also investigated along with the effect of the deterioration of these additives on the friction coefficient. It was found that these additives form a film, 80-90 nm in thickness, on the sliding surface, which is effective in increasing the friction coefficient. The friction coefficient declined with increasing additive deterioration. The results of a 31P-NMR analysis indicated that the decline closely correlated with the amount of ZDDP in the B-CVT fluid.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Speed Steel Based Sintered Material for High Performance Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts

The demands on valve seat insert materials, in terms of providing greater wear-resistance at higher temperatures, enhanced machinability and using non-environmentally hazardous materials at a reasonably low cost have intensified in recent years. Due therefore to these strong demands in the market, research was made into the possibility of producing a new valve seat insert material. As a result a high speed steel based new improved material was developed, which satisfies the necessary required demands and the evaluation trials, using actual gasoline engine endurance tests, were found to be very successful.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Cobalt-Free Exhaust Valve Seat Insert

Generally, cobalt-contained sintered materials have mainly been applied for exhaust valve seat inserts (VSI). However, there is a trend to restrict the use of cobalt as well as lead environmental law, and cobalt is expensive. To solve these problems, a new exhaust VSI on the assumption of being cobalt and lead free, applicable for conventional engines, having good machinability, and with a reduced cost was developed. The new exhaust VSI is a material dispersed with two types of hard particles, Fe-Cr-C and Fe-Mo-Si, in the matrix of an Fe-3.5mass%Mo at the ratio of 15 mass % and 10 mass % respectively.
Technical Paper

The Development of Second Generation Ceramic Turbocharger Rotor - Further Improvements in Reliability

Nissan has developed a second generation ceramic turbocharger rotor which provides greater reliability and higher performance than a conventional ceramic rotor. The new rotor is made of silicon nitride, which has demonstrated sufficient strength in vehicle applications. The bonding technique for joining the ceramic rotor to the metal shaft has been confirmed through experimentation to have sufficient reliability. The second generation rotor is featured by the low stress design and higher dynamic strength, and two factors contribute to its higher reliability. The rotor shape was optimized on the basis of results obtained in two analyses of particle impact resistance and applied combined stress. Test results show that the reliability of the second generation rotor have been substantially improved over those of the conventional rotor now being used on production vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Development of Engine Evaporative Cooling System

A fundamental heat transfer study has “been conducted on a new engine cooling system in which heat is removed from the engine through the boiling process in the water jacket and is radiated to the air through a condenser. By carrying out a basic experiment using a model boiler as a substitute for the cylinder head water jacket and a real engine experiment, the following cooling system characteristics were found: First, a good heat transfer coefficient can be obtained up to an order of 103 kw/m2 heat flow with only a small coolant flow. Second, it is possible to obtain a more uniform temperature distribution over the engine structure by making use of the cooling by boiling characteristics which remove more heat from hotter surfaces than from cooler ones. Third, the good response of this system's variable temperature control procedure greatly reduces knocking, which in turn increases power.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions of V6 ULEVs

New technologies are needed to reduce cold-start emissions in order to meet the more stringent regulations that will go into effect in Europe (EC2000 or EC2005) and in California (ULEV), especially for larger engines such as 6- and 8-cylinder units. One new technology in this regard is the electrically heated catalyst (EHC). However, the use of EHCs alone is not sufficient to achieve the necessary reduction in emissions. This paper discusses techniques for effectively combining the elements of an EHC system, including the introduction of secondary air into the exhaust, improved control of the air/fuel ratio, and an electric power supply method for EHCs. It is shown that it is more effective to promote exothermic reactions in the exhaust manifold than at the EHC. A suitable method for this purpose is to introduce secondary air into the exhaust near the exhaust valves.

Technical Breakthroughs in Development of a Single Motor Full Hybrid System

Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
Technical Paper

Swirl Controlled 4-Valve Engine Improves in Combustion under Lean Air-Fuel Ratio

Since a 4-valve engine is less flexible in the design and location of the intake ports as compared with a conventional 2-valve engine, there are some difficulties in strengthening the air motion, including swirl and turbulence, in order to achieve stable combustion under lean mixture operation. This study examined air motion imporvements of 4-valve engine that result in a stable combustion with a lean mixture. These improvements are brought about by the installation of a swirl control valve in each intake port. The results of this study have clarified that the lean stable limit was extended from an air-fuel ratio of 21.5 to 26.3 under a partial load, by optimizing the location and diameter of aperture of the swirl control valve.
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.