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Technical Paper

Using the Hybrid FE-SEA Model of a Trimmed Full Vehicle to Reduce Structure Borne Noise from 200Hz to 1kHz

The Hybrid FE-SEA method has been used to create fast/efficient model of structure-borne noise in a fully trimmed vehicle from 200Hz to 1kHz. A joint paper is presented which highlights the method and modelling process along with extensive validation results. This paper describes the use of the model to analyze structure borne noise in the full vehicle, design and evaluate the impact of counter-measures. One of the key attributes of the Hybrid FE-SEA method is the ability to predict noise transfer paths in the vehicle. First, results from a Noise Path Analysis are used to identify key contributors to interior noise in the 200Hz-1kHz frequency range. Next potential design strategies for reducing interior noise are introduced along with implications on the model. Finally, sample prediction results illustrating the impact of design changes on interior noise levels are shown along with preliminary experimental validation results.
Technical Paper

Total Gas/Effective Fuel Ratio Predicts Coast Surge in Emission-Control Vehicles

In the course of developing a low-emission manual transmission vehicle, coast surge in the fore-and-aft direction resulting from the installation of certain emission-control devices was sometimes experienced immediately after the initiation of vehicle deceleration. Our investigation revealed that this vehicle surge was caused by combustion irregularities in a sequence of combustion-misfire-intense combustion events occurring every several cycles. A new combustibility standard. Gt/Feff, defined as the ratio of total cylinder mixture weight Gt to effective fuel weight Feff, was found to predict combustibility and irregular combustion over the entire mixture range. As a result, driveability during deceleration was improved by modifying key emission-control components.
Technical Paper

The Nissan 2.4L In-Line 4-Cylinder Engine

Nissan's new 2.4-liter in-line, 4-cylinder gasoline engine, the “KA24E,” was developed for the worldwide automobile market, but exclusively for the North American market. It has been released for Nissan's new 1989 model, high-performance sports car, the “240SX”, and will also be mounted in such forthcoming models as the new 1990 “AXXESS”. The major objectives in developing this new engine were to achieve high performance at practical driving speeds, especially at low- and middle-engine speeds, quiet engine operation, reliability, fuel economy and serviceability, all of which are essential factors in daily driving. For realizing these objectives, multi-valves, aerodynamic intake ports, a high-rigidity cylinder block, a silent single timing chain, and hydraulic valve lash adjusters were incorporated into this engine. Furthermore, to develop the engine, almost all components were redesigned using computer design techniques, and checked by extensive testing.
Technical Paper

The New Nissan 1.7 Liter 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine

The new Nissan 1.7 liter 4 cylinder diesel engine has been developed to meet the social requirements for energy conservation. The main objective was to improve fuel economy without sacrificing driveability, and this has been achieved by minimizing engine weight, reducing mechanical friction loss and optimizing the combustion system. The CA series gasoline engine, which is known for its light weight, was chosen as the base engine for dieselization. The swirl chamber combustion system used for the LD28 engine was modified to satisfy the requirements for high power, good fuel economy and low noise. Engine noise has been reduced with the aid of several analytical methods such as laser holography. Special attention has been paid to the reduction of diesel knock which is most offensive to the ear. To install this engine in a small FWD vehicle transversely, much effort went into the minimizing of the engine length and width.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Belt-Drive CVT Fluid on the Friction Coefficient Between Metal Components

A block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine (LFW-1) was used as a test method for making fundamental evaluations of the effect of the Belt-Drive Continuously Variable Transmission(B-CVT) fluid on the friction coefficient between the belt and pulleys. The results confirmed that this method can simulate the friction phenomena between the belt and pulleys of an actual transmission. The mechanism whereby ZDDP and some Ca detergents improve the torque capacity of a B-CVT was also investigated along with the effect of the deterioration of these additives on the friction coefficient. It was found that these additives form a film, 80-90 nm in thickness, on the sliding surface, which is effective in increasing the friction coefficient. The friction coefficient declined with increasing additive deterioration. The results of a 31P-NMR analysis indicated that the decline closely correlated with the amount of ZDDP in the B-CVT fluid.
Technical Paper

The Development of the Suspension System Used on the Nissan Stanza - A New Front-Wheel-Drive Compact Car

The suspension system of the Nissan Stanza was specifically designed for use on a front-wheel-drive car. It was developed with the idea that the new suspension should be compact and light, and afford a comfortable ride as well as good stability and controllability. Furthermore, it should have excellent noise and vibration characteristics. To achieve these objectives we adapted a strut suspension for both the front and rear, and careful consideration was given to the fundamental specifications. In addition, some new ideas were applied for the layout of the suspension.
Technical Paper

The Development of an Active Noise Control System for Automobiles

This Paper Presents the world's first active noise system for production vehicle implementation. Adopted in the new middle size FF car model, this epoch-making system dramatically reduces the booming noise caused by the second-order harmonic of engine revolution. This is accomplished by using an adaptive control theory based on digital signal processing technology and a digital signal processor (DSP). The system basically employs a multiple error filtered-x LMS algorithm, to which an new algorithm was added to achieve the maximum noise reduction effect under a condition of stable control in a compact system for production vehicle application.
Technical Paper

The Development of Driveability Index and the Effects of Gasoline Volatility on Engine Performance

To reduce engine exhaust emissions, we have had to deal with this global environmental problem from the fuel side by introducing oxygenated fuels, reducing the RVP and using low aromatics. But when we change the fuel components and distillation, we must take note about how these affect the engine driveability. We have used T50, T90, RVP and so on as the fuel index up to the present. It is possible to characterize the fuel from one aspect, but these indexes don't always represent the real feature of the fuel. In this paper we propose a New Driveability Index (here in after referred to as NDI) that is more realistic and accurate than the other fuel indexes. We used a 1600cc DOHC L4 MPI type engine. We used Model Gasolines and Market Gasolines, see Appendix(1), (2) and (3), and tested them according to the Excess Air Ratio Response Test Method (here in after referred to as λ-R Test) that was suggested in SAE paper #930375, and we calculated the NDI statistically.
Technical Paper

The Concept of Suspension and Steering System for the New Datsun 280ZX

The DATSUN 28OZ has been widely known as a world-wide sports car. The NEW DATSUN 28OZX, as the succeeding model to 28OZ, has now appeared after being refined on both interior and exterior design. The Suspension and steering system of the new model are improved to get better handling performance and lower noise level. In this paper, the design concepts and techniques of the new suspension and steering system are described. The main themes are as follows the construction of new suspension and steering system handling performance directional stability vibration and noise level
Technical Paper

The Application of Image Processing to Laser Displacement and Strain Analysis

New image processing procedures for speckle photography and holographic interferometry are described. The algorithm for speckle photography measures the displacement value and direction automatically within the accuracy of ±5% over a range of 10 µm to 150 µm. This algorithm has adopted the Maximum Entropy Method to measure fringe intervals with high accuracy. The algorithm for holographic interferometry detects the fringe line and determines the displacement distribution with an operator's assist. Through the experiments, it was shown that these procedures are effective and accurate for vibration and deformation analysis.
Technical Paper

Study on Air Bag Systems for Nissan Small-Sized Cars

This paper outlines the most important characteristics of the practical type air bag now being developed by Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. It explains the results of various occupant protection tests conducted at 16 to 64 km/h (10 to 40 mph) speeds, and the related problems we have encountered. It further discusses the effects of several type of occupant protection systems installed on small-sized cars and the relationships between those effects and limited crash speeds. An examination and analysis of air bag performance test results is also included. Despite all efforts made, there yet remain several problems to be solved. For example, (a) in high-speed collisions it is difficult to reduce femur load by means of air bag systems alone; (b) passengers such as three-year-old infants and 5th percentile female adults display a tendency toward submarining: (c) when the environmental temperature is extremely low, it is difficult for the air bag to meet the MVSS Occupant Protection Requirements.
Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Study of the Generation mechanism for Abnormal Exhaust Noise

Based on experimental analysis, the generation mechanism of abnormal exhaust noise which is characterized by an intermittent high frequency aetallic sound, is clarified by bench testing of a FWD vehicle. The noise is caused by large amplitude pressure waves (finite amplitude waves) in the exhaust pipe. They are amplified due to interference between reflected waves and subsequent waves from the engine, and are finally transformed into shock waves in the propagation process along the exhaust pipe, resulting in abnormal exhaust noise. By theoretical analysis of finite amplitude waves, the wave profile in the propagation process and the transition distance to the shock wave can be solved analytically where the assumptions of mass, momentum, and energy conservation are valid, until the moment of shock wave formation. The transition distance is a key parameter in analyzing the growth and existence of shock waves.
Technical Paper

Sources of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Direct Injection Diesel Engine

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the mechanisms of unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a small direct - injection (DI) diesel engine. HC emission levels of small DI diesel engines are considerably higher than those of corresponding indirect - injection (IDI) diesel engines, even when sacless injection nozzles that are effective in reducing HC emissions are installed on them. In this study, analytical engine tests were performed to evaluate the relative significance of various potential sources of HC emissions from a small DI diesel engine equipped with sacless type injectors.
Journal Article

Silicon Carbide Inverter for EV/HEV Application featuring a Low Thermal Resistance Module and a Noise Reduction Structure

This paper presents the technologies incorporated in an electric vehicle (EV)/hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) inverter built with power semiconductors of silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) instead of conventional silicon (Si) insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). A SiC inverter prototype of 2.9 L in size for driving an 80-kW motor was fabricated and evaluated on a motor test bench. The SiC inverter prototype attained average efficiency of 98.5% in the Worldwide harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) driving mode. The two main technologies achieved with this SiC inverter prototype are described. The first one is a new direct-cooled power module with a thick copper (Cu) heat spreader located under the semiconductors that improves thermal resistance by 34% compared with a conventional direct-cooled power module.
Technical Paper

Research on the Effect of Lubricant Oil and Fuel Properties on LSPI Occurrence in Boosted S. I. Engines

The effects of lubricant oil and fuel properties on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) occurrence in boosted S.I. engines were experimentally evaluated with multi-cylinder engine and de-correlated oil and fuel matrices. Further, the auto-ignitability of fuel spray droplets and evaporated homogeneous fuel/oil mixtures were evaluated in a combustion bomb and pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) tests to analyze the fundamental ignition process. The work investigated the effect of engine conditions, fuel volatility and various lubricant additives on LSPI occurrence. The results support the validity of aspects of the LSPI mechanism hypothesis based on the phenomenon of droplets of lubricant oil/fuel mixture (caused by adhesion of fuel spray on the liner wall) flying into the chamber and autoigniting before spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Research on a Variable Swirl Intake Port for 4-Valve High-Speed DI Diesel Engines

A variable swirl intake port system for 4 valves/cylinder direct injection diesel engines was developed. This system combines two mutually independent intake ports, one of which is a helical port for generating an ultra-high swirl ratio and the other is a tangential port for generating a low swirl ratio. The tangential port incorporates a swirl control valve that controls the swirl ratio by varying the flow rate. To investigate the performance of the intake port system, steady-state flow tests were conducted in parallel with three-dimensional computations. In conducting the steady-state flow tests, it was found that a paddle wheel flow sensor was not suitable for evaluating the characteristics of the high-swirl port and that it was necessary to use an impulse swirl flow meter.
Technical Paper

Research on High Strength Material and Its Surface Modification for Parts Used Under Rolling Contact Cycles

This paper describes a newly developed steel composition and surface modification methods for improving the rolling contact fatigue strength of parts used in transmission systems, especially continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) to increase their torque capacity. The mechanisms of two types of typical rolling contact fatigue phenomenon in case hardening steel were examined with the aim of improving rolling contact fatigue strength. One concerned white etching constituents (WEC) and the other one concerned peculiar microstructural changes caused by hydrogen originating from decomposition of the lubrication oil as a result of repeated rolling contact stress cycles. The rolling contact fatigue strength limit due to WEC has been improved markedly by dispersing fine M23C6 alloy carbides in the martensite matrix at the subsurface layer of parts.
Technical Paper

Research on Crankshaft System Behavior Based on Coupled Crankshaft-Block Analysis

Achieving a multi-cylinder engine with excellent noise/vibration character sties and low friction at the main bearings requires an optimal design not only for the crankshaft construction but also for the bearing support system of the cylinder block. To accomplish that, it is necessary to understand crankshaft system behavior and the bearing load distribution for each of the main bearings. Crankshaft system behavior has traditionally been evaluated experimentally because of the difficulty in performing calculations to predict resonance behavior over the entire engine speed range. A coupled crankshaft-block analysis method has been developed to calculate crankshaft system behavior by treating vibration and lubrication in a systematic manner. This method has the feature that the coupled behavior of the crankshaft and the cylinder block is analyzed by means of main bearing lubrication calculations. This paper presents the results obtained with this method.
Technical Paper

Research Concentrated on An Experimental Method for Protecting Pedestrians

This paper describes a test procedure in which a dummy and a sled impact tester are used to simulate vehicle-pedestrian accidents for the purpose of investigating pedestrian protection. In the series of tests conducted, the bumper height, hood-edge height, bumper lead, front-end compliance of the vehicle, impact velocity, and other factors were varied in an effort to clarify to what extent modifications to the vehicle front end would contribute to enhanced pedestrian protection. Preliminary test findings obtained with this test procedure are also presented regarding the effects of the front-end shape of the vehicle and the stance of the dummy at the moment of impact.