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Technical Paper

Usability Evaluation of Integrated Switch System

This paper describes an integrated switch system by which the audio control system, air-conditioner control system and navigation control system can be operated with a smaller number of switches. This system resolves several issues resulting from the incorporation of information technology into vehicles, including the increased visual load due to the greater amount of information presented and the poorer operability resulting from increased functionality. A usability evaluation was conducted and the results indicated that the integrated switch system can reduce visual load.
Technical Paper

The Development on Cold Forging Technique to form a Component of the Constant Velocity Joint

Cold forging has been applied to form a component of the constant velocity joint. This part, slide joint housing, is made of JIS S48C (SAE 1048) high carbon steel. As it has been very difficult to form this part by cold forging, it has been formed by hot forging up until now. Success was obtained in forming this part by cold forging through improving the chemical composition of S48C high carbon steel and tool design, determining the optimum condition for heat treating the slug, and using a TiC coated punch. Since this slide joint housing, which is nearly net shape, was able to be formed through this cold forging technique, material saving was improved about 40% and machining time was reduced much in comparison with hot forging. Manufacturing cost can be greatly reduced through this cold forging which has been developed.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Speed Steel Based Sintered Material for High Performance Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts

The demands on valve seat insert materials, in terms of providing greater wear-resistance at higher temperatures, enhanced machinability and using non-environmentally hazardous materials at a reasonably low cost have intensified in recent years. Due therefore to these strong demands in the market, research was made into the possibility of producing a new valve seat insert material. As a result a high speed steel based new improved material was developed, which satisfies the necessary required demands and the evaluation trials, using actual gasoline engine endurance tests, were found to be very successful.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Cobalt-Free Exhaust Valve Seat Insert

Generally, cobalt-contained sintered materials have mainly been applied for exhaust valve seat inserts (VSI). However, there is a trend to restrict the use of cobalt as well as lead environmental law, and cobalt is expensive. To solve these problems, a new exhaust VSI on the assumption of being cobalt and lead free, applicable for conventional engines, having good machinability, and with a reduced cost was developed. The new exhaust VSI is a material dispersed with two types of hard particles, Fe-Cr-C and Fe-Mo-Si, in the matrix of an Fe-3.5mass%Mo at the ratio of 15 mass % and 10 mass % respectively.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions of V6 ULEVs

New technologies are needed to reduce cold-start emissions in order to meet the more stringent regulations that will go into effect in Europe (EC2000 or EC2005) and in California (ULEV), especially for larger engines such as 6- and 8-cylinder units. One new technology in this regard is the electrically heated catalyst (EHC). However, the use of EHCs alone is not sufficient to achieve the necessary reduction in emissions. This paper discusses techniques for effectively combining the elements of an EHC system, including the introduction of secondary air into the exhaust, improved control of the air/fuel ratio, and an electric power supply method for EHCs. It is shown that it is more effective to promote exothermic reactions in the exhaust manifold than at the EHC. A suitable method for this purpose is to introduce secondary air into the exhaust near the exhaust valves.

Technical Breakthroughs in Development of a Single Motor Full Hybrid System

Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
Technical Paper

Study on Miniaturization of an Air-Cooled Inverter Integrated with Motor

This paper reports about a trial for miniaturization of an air-cooled inverter integrated with motor, which is realized by reduction of the total volume of smoothing capacitor. An integrated system prototype was constructed with a disk-shaped inverter positioned at the rear end of the motor. We examined the possibility of using a ceramic capacitor, which features a higher heat-resistance temperature, lower internal resistance and higher capacity density than a film capacitor. At the same level of capacitance, the volume of a ceramic capacitor is less than one-half that of a film capacitor, enabling the size of the smoothing capacitor to be reduced to approximately one-fifth that of the currently used device. A suitable circuit configuration and physical layout of distributed smoothing capacitors and corresponding power device modules are proposed and demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Study of a High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery for Parallel HEV Application

Our studies of the lithium-ion battery system have shown considerably more power capability than some existing batteries. Based on these results, we have developed a lithium-ion battery for parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) application. This battery system provides around ten times the specific power of conventional batteries and also achieves high recharging performance and high charge/discharge efficiency. Evaluation results indicate that it is a highly promising energy source for PHEVs.
Technical Paper

Sinter Diffusion Bonded Idler Sprocket of Automotive Engine

The key-points in the diffusion bonding technique of green compacts during sintering, are the material compositions, which should be chosen according to their dimensional change during sintering, and the fitting clearance, which should be maintained in the range of press fit. Applying this technique, we have developed sinter-diffusion bonded idler sprockets for automotive engines by comfirming the bonding strength and torsional fatigue strength. And we also have developed a nondestructive analysis method for assuring the joint strength of idler sprockets in the mass production.
Technical Paper

Research on a Braking System for Reducing Collision Speed

An investigation was made of the relationship between the driving speed at the time of impact and the injury levels suffered in accidents. The results showed that a 5 km/h or more reduction in collision speed tends to mitigate injury severity. Using sensors and brake actuators already in practical use, we have started to research a braking system aimed at reducing the collision speed by at least 5 km/h in rear-end collisions. The system estimates the risk of a collision with the vehicle ahead. If it judges there is a very high possibility of a collision, it applies the brakes.
Technical Paper

Research on Large Capacity, High Power Lithium-ion Batteries

Aiming for an environmental vehicle, since the 1990s we have narrowed our focus to the development of an exclusive use lithium-ion battery, and we have strongly advanced our examinations into high-performance power supply systems. In order to adapt a battery to meet vehicle requirements, it is necessary to more accurately predict battery performance, and have the ability to design it. For example, in the applicability to HEVs(Hybrid Electric Vehicles), ensuring battery power with certainty is required, but in order to improve battery power, the basic process that occurs inside the battery was restrained, so it is possible that the quantitative analytical approach is the necessary fundamental technology.
Technical Paper

Research on High Strength Material and Its Surface Modification for Parts Used Under Rolling Contact Cycles

This paper describes a newly developed steel composition and surface modification methods for improving the rolling contact fatigue strength of parts used in transmission systems, especially continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) to increase their torque capacity. The mechanisms of two types of typical rolling contact fatigue phenomenon in case hardening steel were examined with the aim of improving rolling contact fatigue strength. One concerned white etching constituents (WEC) and the other one concerned peculiar microstructural changes caused by hydrogen originating from decomposition of the lubrication oil as a result of repeated rolling contact stress cycles. The rolling contact fatigue strength limit due to WEC has been improved markedly by dispersing fine M23C6 alloy carbides in the martensite matrix at the subsurface layer of parts.
Technical Paper

Research and Development Work on High-performance Lithium-ion Batteries for EV Application

From the beginning of the 1990s, we have been vigorously investigating a high-performance power source system for application to environmental vehicles, focusing our research and development efforts specifically on lithium-ion batteries. In order to adapt a battery system to the requirements of the target vehicle, battery performance must be predicted and designed more accurately. In the case of hybrid electric vehicles, for example, battery power must be reliably assured. Improving battery power requires quantitative analytical methods as fundamental techniques for understanding the basic processes that take place in a battery. From this perspective, we began constructing a battery simulation model from scratch in the middle of the 1990s concurrently with our battery R&D activities. The model simulates electrode reactions and charge transport and has been used in investigating the influence of these factors on battery performance.
Technical Paper

New PM Valve Seat Insert Materials for High Performance Engines

Internal combustion engines experience severe valve train wear and the reduction of valve seat and seat insert wear has been a long-standing issue. In this work, worn valve seats and inserts were examined to obtain a fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms and the results were applied in developing new valve seat insert materials. The new exhaust valve insert material for gasoline engines is a sintered alloy steel containing Co-base hard particles, with lead infiltrated only for inserts used in unleaded gasoline engines. The new intake valve insert material for gasoline engines is a high-Mo sintered steel, obtained through transient liquid phase sintering and with copper precipitated uniformly. This material can be used for both leaded and unleaded gasoline engines. Valve and valve seat insert wear has long been an issue of concern to engine designers and manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles

Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.
Technical Paper

Interactive Information Delivery Navigation System

In the past few years, car navigation and cellular phone system are rapidly increased in Japan and vehicle information and communication system (VICS), the public traffic information service started in 1996, accelerates realization of ITS world. This rapid movement causes drivers to want more information on not only traffic jam but also other versatile items like parking availability, weather report and the latest news, etc. via cellular phone network. This paper describes the on-demand information service with the interactive human interface by operators and the development of the information center and the in-vehicle system to realize it.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Pitting Resistance of Transmission Gears by Plasma Carburizing Process

The application of both high strength gear steels and shot peening technology has succeeded in strengthening automotive transmission gears. This technology, though, improves mainly the fatigue strength at the tooth root, but not the pitting property at the tooth face. Therefore, demand has moved to the development of new gear steels with good pitting resistance. In order to improve pitting resistance, the authors studied super carburizing which is characterized by carbide dispersion in the case, especially processed with a plasma carburizing furnace. Firstly, the influence of the carburizing temperature and carburizing period on the carbide morphology was investigated and the optimum carburizing conditions were determined. Secondly, the fatigue strength and pitting resistance was evaluated using carbide dispersed specimens.
Technical Paper

High Strength Steel for Cylinder Head Bolt

JIS SCM440M (SAE4140H), heat treated to the strength level of 120 to 140 kgf/mm2(171 to 199 ksi) -ISO 12.9 class-, is currently used for cylinder head bolts of Japanese passenger cars. Lower alloy steels, such as SAE 1541 for example, have not been substituted for JIS SCM440H so far because of their high susceptibility to delayed fracture. Daido Steel has tackled this problem and succeeded in applying the lower alloy SAE 1541 steel to 12.9 class cylinder head bolts by enhancing the resistance to delayed fracture by reducing impurities, especially sulphur. In this paper mechanical properties and delayed fracture characteristics of SAE 1541-ULS (Ultra Low Sulphur) steel are reported. 1541-ULS (S<0.005%, S+P< 0.020%) shows outstanding resistance to delayed fracture compared to conventional steel. Furthermore, the amount of MnS inclusions decreases remarkably in ULS steel, which results in high toughness.
Technical Paper

High Power Density Motor and Inverter for RWD Hybrid Vehicles

This paper describes the motor and inverter of Nissan's newly developed parallel hybrid system for rear-wheel-drive hybrid vehicles. The new system incorporates a high-power lithium-ion battery and a one-motor-two-clutch powertrain to achieve both highly responsive acceleration and better fuel economy. As the main components of the hybrid system, both the motor and the inverter have been developed and are manufactured in house to attain high power density for providing responsive acceleration, a quiet EV drive mode and improved fuel economy. Because the motor is located between the engine and the transmission, it had to be shortened to stay within the length allowed for the powertrain. The rotary position sensor and clutch actuator are located inside the rotor to meet the size requirement. High-density winding of square-shaped wire and a small power distribution busbar also contribute to the compact configuration.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Noise Abatement with Porous Sintered Metal Silencer

The exhaust system is often one of the main sources of vehicle noise. A new type of exhaust silencer made of porous sintered aluminum and installed at the end of the exhaust tube considerably reduces this noise, with no rise in back pressure. The mechanism of noise abatement is analyzed utilizing fluid dynamic analysis techniques. It is concluded that noise reduction results mainly from the fluid dynamic effects arising from the gas permeability of the material. Among these effects are the boundary layer control effect of the inner flow, flattening of the velocity profile, heat dispersion effect, decrease in turbulence of flow, smoothing of exhaust pulsation, contraction of the mixing region, and the resulting large decrease in the volume of the noise source. In regard to acoustical effect, the sintered metal can be thought of as Helmholtz resonators. The change in the end condition as an acoustic tube also reduces the peak level of acoustic resonance.