Refine Your Search



Search Results

Technical Paper

Vehicle Cornering and Braking Behavior Simulation Using a Finite Element Method

This paper presents a vehicle dynamic simulation using a finite element method for performing more accurate simulations under extreme operating conditions with large tire deformation. A new hourglass control scheme implemented in an explicit finite element analysis code LS-DYNA(1) is used to stabilize tire deformation. The tires and suspension systems are fully modeled using finite elements and are connected to a rigid body that represents the whole vehicle body as well as the engine, drive train system and all other interior parts. This model is used to perform cornering and braking behavior simulations and the results are compared with experimental data. In the cornering behavior simulation, the calculated lateral acceleration and yaw rate at the vehicle's center of gravity agree well with the experimental results. Their nonlinear behavior is also well expressed.
Technical Paper

The Development on Cold Forging Technique to form a Component of the Constant Velocity Joint

Cold forging has been applied to form a component of the constant velocity joint. This part, slide joint housing, is made of JIS S48C (SAE 1048) high carbon steel. As it has been very difficult to form this part by cold forging, it has been formed by hot forging up until now. Success was obtained in forming this part by cold forging through improving the chemical composition of S48C high carbon steel and tool design, determining the optimum condition for heat treating the slug, and using a TiC coated punch. Since this slide joint housing, which is nearly net shape, was able to be formed through this cold forging technique, material saving was improved about 40% and machining time was reduced much in comparison with hot forging. Manufacturing cost can be greatly reduced through this cold forging which has been developed.
Technical Paper

The Development of an Experimental Four-Wheel-Steering Vehicle

This paper describes the development of a vehicle with four-wheel steering in which the rear wheels can be controlled electronically in addition to the conventional front-wheel steering system. In the method for steering the rear wheels, the side-slip angle at the vehicle's center of gravity is maintained at zero, which improves the basic dynamic properties of the vehicle. This approach allows greater maneuverability at low speed by means of counter-phase rear steering and improved stability at high speed through same-phase rear steering. However, the use of counter-phase rear steering to improve maneuverability gives rise to problems in regard to practicality. In addition, continuously controlled four-wheel steering, using counter-phase at low speed and same-phase at high speed, leads to many other problems regarding practicality because of the strong apparent understeer characteristics.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Speed Steel Based Sintered Material for High Performance Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts

The demands on valve seat insert materials, in terms of providing greater wear-resistance at higher temperatures, enhanced machinability and using non-environmentally hazardous materials at a reasonably low cost have intensified in recent years. Due therefore to these strong demands in the market, research was made into the possibility of producing a new valve seat insert material. As a result a high speed steel based new improved material was developed, which satisfies the necessary required demands and the evaluation trials, using actual gasoline engine endurance tests, were found to be very successful.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Cobalt-Free Exhaust Valve Seat Insert

Generally, cobalt-contained sintered materials have mainly been applied for exhaust valve seat inserts (VSI). However, there is a trend to restrict the use of cobalt as well as lead environmental law, and cobalt is expensive. To solve these problems, a new exhaust VSI on the assumption of being cobalt and lead free, applicable for conventional engines, having good machinability, and with a reduced cost was developed. The new exhaust VSI is a material dispersed with two types of hard particles, Fe-Cr-C and Fe-Mo-Si, in the matrix of an Fe-3.5mass%Mo at the ratio of 15 mass % and 10 mass % respectively.
Technical Paper

Technology for distinctive handling performance of the newly developed Electric Vehicle

Electric Vehicle distinctive techniques in order to enhance the vehicle dynamic performance have been studied and applied to Nissan LEAF. From the viewpoint of performance design parameters, this paper introduces the application items focusing on effectuality for the vehicle behavior by means of the yawing motion and the rolling motion control of its vehicle. As the result, the effects of vehicle performance are shown in experimental data.
Technical Paper

Sinter Diffusion Bonded Idler Sprocket of Automotive Engine

The key-points in the diffusion bonding technique of green compacts during sintering, are the material compositions, which should be chosen according to their dimensional change during sintering, and the fitting clearance, which should be maintained in the range of press fit. Applying this technique, we have developed sinter-diffusion bonded idler sprockets for automotive engines by comfirming the bonding strength and torsional fatigue strength. And we also have developed a nondestructive analysis method for assuring the joint strength of idler sprockets in the mass production.
Technical Paper

Research on High Strength Material and Its Surface Modification for Parts Used Under Rolling Contact Cycles

This paper describes a newly developed steel composition and surface modification methods for improving the rolling contact fatigue strength of parts used in transmission systems, especially continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) to increase their torque capacity. The mechanisms of two types of typical rolling contact fatigue phenomenon in case hardening steel were examined with the aim of improving rolling contact fatigue strength. One concerned white etching constituents (WEC) and the other one concerned peculiar microstructural changes caused by hydrogen originating from decomposition of the lubrication oil as a result of repeated rolling contact stress cycles. The rolling contact fatigue strength limit due to WEC has been improved markedly by dispersing fine M23C6 alloy carbides in the martensite matrix at the subsurface layer of parts.
Technical Paper

New PM Valve Seat Insert Materials for High Performance Engines

Internal combustion engines experience severe valve train wear and the reduction of valve seat and seat insert wear has been a long-standing issue. In this work, worn valve seats and inserts were examined to obtain a fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms and the results were applied in developing new valve seat insert materials. The new exhaust valve insert material for gasoline engines is a sintered alloy steel containing Co-base hard particles, with lead infiltrated only for inserts used in unleaded gasoline engines. The new intake valve insert material for gasoline engines is a high-Mo sintered steel, obtained through transient liquid phase sintering and with copper precipitated uniformly. This material can be used for both leaded and unleaded gasoline engines. Valve and valve seat insert wear has long been an issue of concern to engine designers and manufacturers.
Journal Article

New Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Pitch Sequence Optimization of CVT Variator Chain

A CVT variator chain system is superior in transmission efficiency to a belt system because of its lower internal friction. However, a chain produces more noise than a belt due to the long pitch length of contact between the pulleys and rocker pins. This study focuses on optimization of the pitch sequence for reducing chain noise. The previous pitch sequence was suitably combined of links of different lengths to improve noise dispersibility for reducing chain noise. First, the object function was defined as the reduction of the peak level of 1st-order chain noise combined with a well-balanced the levels on the low and high frequency sides. Interior background noise consisting of road noise and wind noise have the characteristic that they increase as the frequency decreases.
Technical Paper

Independent Control of Steering Force and Wheel Angles to Improve Straight Line Stability

This paper describes a control method to improve straight-line stability without sacrificing natural steering feel, utilizing a newly developed steering system controlling the steering force and the wheel angle independently. It cancels drifting by a road cant and suppresses the yaw angle induced by road surface irregularities or a side wind. Therefore drivers can keep the car straight with such a little steering input adjustment, thus reducing the driver's workload greatly. In this control method, a camera mounted behind the windshield recognizes the forward lane and calculate the discrepancy between the vehicle direction and the driving lane. This method has been applied to the test car, and the reduction of the driver's workload was confirmed. This paper presents an outline of the method and describes its advantages.
Technical Paper

Improvement of the High Rigidity Power-Roller Support Structure in a Half-Toroidal CVT

This paper describes the improvement made to the high rigidity power-roller support structure in a dual-cavity half-toroidal CVT to further increase torque capacity. As a result of re-analyzing the function and parts composition of the previous structure, a high rigidity power-roller support structure, which permits power roller movement only in the horizontal direction, has been adopted. This structure enables the thrust and radial stiffness of the power-roller support to be substantially improved over the previous structure.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics Through Braking Force Distribution Control

The influence on vehicle dynamics of braking force distribution to four wheels has been analyzed by computer simulation and experimentation. The analytical results indicate that a suitable braking force distribution control method can improve handling and stability during braking. A new braking force distribution cintrol strategy,using a steering wheel angle feedforward function and a yaw velocity feedback function,is shown to improve vehicle dynamic behavior.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Pitting Resistance of Transmission Gears by Plasma Carburizing Process

The application of both high strength gear steels and shot peening technology has succeeded in strengthening automotive transmission gears. This technology, though, improves mainly the fatigue strength at the tooth root, but not the pitting property at the tooth face. Therefore, demand has moved to the development of new gear steels with good pitting resistance. In order to improve pitting resistance, the authors studied super carburizing which is characterized by carbide dispersion in the case, especially processed with a plasma carburizing furnace. Firstly, the influence of the carburizing temperature and carburizing period on the carbide morphology was investigated and the optimum carburizing conditions were determined. Secondly, the fatigue strength and pitting resistance was evaluated using carbide dispersed specimens.
Technical Paper

High Strength Steel for Cylinder Head Bolt

JIS SCM440M (SAE4140H), heat treated to the strength level of 120 to 140 kgf/mm2(171 to 199 ksi) -ISO 12.9 class-, is currently used for cylinder head bolts of Japanese passenger cars. Lower alloy steels, such as SAE 1541 for example, have not been substituted for JIS SCM440H so far because of their high susceptibility to delayed fracture. Daido Steel has tackled this problem and succeeded in applying the lower alloy SAE 1541 steel to 12.9 class cylinder head bolts by enhancing the resistance to delayed fracture by reducing impurities, especially sulphur. In this paper mechanical properties and delayed fracture characteristics of SAE 1541-ULS (Ultra Low Sulphur) steel are reported. 1541-ULS (S<0.005%, S+P< 0.020%) shows outstanding resistance to delayed fracture compared to conventional steel. Furthermore, the amount of MnS inclusions decreases remarkably in ULS steel, which results in high toughness.
Technical Paper

HBMC (Hydraulic Body Motion Control System) for Production Vehicle Application

In order to satisfy increasing customer demands on ride quality as well as expectations for off-road performance of sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), it is necessary to develop technologies which offer enhanced levels of both performances. For ride quality, it is important to minimize body roll angle during cornering, which is achieved by suppressing suspension travel, and also to reduce vertical motion during straight-ahead travel. While for off-road performance, it is necessary to allow a long suspension stroke to allow a high level of off-road traction by delivering driving force reliably to the surface. These two performance parameters require a tradeoff with respect to vehicle roll stiffness. To reconcile these conflicting performance requirements, for first time in the world we adopted for production vehicles the system which connects the four shock absorbers together.
Technical Paper

Factoring Nonlinear Kinematics into New Suspension Design: A CAE Approach to Vehicle Roll Dynamics

Over the past several decades, vehicle dynamics have been treated mainly on the basis of linear theories. An actual vehicle, however, also shows nonlinear properties such as roll behavior induced by movement of the roll axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the vehicle roll dynamics in the nonlinear range. Suspensions were divided into two categories and computer-aided engineering (CAE) was used to conduct analyses of complicated kinematics. The results obtained provided theoretical support for designing the Multi-Link Beam Rear Suspension, a new type of suspension for front-wheel-drive cars.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Noise Abatement with Porous Sintered Metal Silencer

The exhaust system is often one of the main sources of vehicle noise. A new type of exhaust silencer made of porous sintered aluminum and installed at the end of the exhaust tube considerably reduces this noise, with no rise in back pressure. The mechanism of noise abatement is analyzed utilizing fluid dynamic analysis techniques. It is concluded that noise reduction results mainly from the fluid dynamic effects arising from the gas permeability of the material. Among these effects are the boundary layer control effect of the inner flow, flattening of the velocity profile, heat dispersion effect, decrease in turbulence of flow, smoothing of exhaust pulsation, contraction of the mixing region, and the resulting large decrease in the volume of the noise source. In regard to acoustical effect, the sintered metal can be thought of as Helmholtz resonators. The change in the end condition as an acoustic tube also reduces the peak level of acoustic resonance.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Improvement of Vehicle Roll Behavior

Vehicle roll behavior has a large influence on how drivers evaluate handling performance. This paper describes an approach to quantifying roll behavior experimentally and presents a method for designing suspension properties to improve the sensation of roll. In this study, it was found that using pitch motion as an evaluation index results in good correspondence with subjective evaluations. To obtain acceptable roll behavior, it is important to control pitch motion during roll to a lower mode at the front end relative to the rear. This desirable behavior can be achieved by designing suitable roll center characteristics, nonlinear load changes and damping force coefficients.
Technical Paper

Development of the N-Type Runflat Tire and Its Evaluation in Vehicle Dynamics

Judging from viewpoint of automotive safety and more space by eliminating a spare tire, the development of the run-flat tires is important. Many problems relating to weight increase and usability had to be solved in the course of the development of such tires. The “ N ” type run-flat tire, described in this paper, has a simple structure with reinforced side walls and additional beads to fit the rim flanges. Though this tire system brought about a small amount of weight increase, it needs no special part, therefore the conventional road wheels, air valves and tire changers may be used. We have tested and evaluated this tire system equipped with passenger cars as well as on the test machines. Especially vehicle dynamics such as steering, stability and so forth were tested. The test results indicated that this tire system is practical enough.