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Journal Article

Verification of Flag Usage Patterns by Static Analysis Techniques

A flag is a global boolean variable used to achieve synchronization between various tasks of an embedded system. An application implementing flags performs actions or events based on the value of the flags. If flag variables are not implemented properly, certain synchronization related issues can arise which can lead to unexpected behavior or failure of the underlying system. In this paper, we present an automated verification technique to identify and verify flag usage patterns at an early stage of code development. We propose a two-step approach which consists of: a. identification of all potential flag variables and b. verification of flag usage patterns against predefined set of rules. The results of our experiment demonstrate that the proposed approach reduces the cost and complexity of the flag review process by almost 70%.
Technical Paper

Venturi Vacuum Transducer Enables Heavy EGR Control

In order to significantly reduce NOx levels by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), while maintaining good fuel economy and driveability, the EGR flow rate must be properly and accurately controlled under a variety of engine operating conditions. Toward this objective, a new EGR control system was developed. It utilizes a carburetor venturi vacuum for a stable reference signal that represents the engine operating condition and it controls the EGR flow rate by using a feedback principle to obtain sufficient flexibility compatible with several different engines. Its control characteristics were mathematically analyzed. And it has also been confirmed that the system can automatically compensate for the drift in EGR characteristics. This EGR control system has been utilized in Nissan’s emission control systems in order to comply with the 1978 Japanese Emission Standards and the 1980 U.S. Federal and California Emission Standards.
Technical Paper

Variable Characteristic Permanent Magnet Motor for Automobile Application

This paper describes a variable magnetomotive force interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine for use as a traction motor on automobiles in order to reduce total energy consumption during duty cycles and cut costs by using Dy-free magnets. First, the principle of a variable magnetomotive force flux-intensifying IPM (VFI-IPM) machine is explained. A theoretical operating point analysis of the magnets using a simplified model with nonlinear B-H characteristics is presented and the results are confirmed by nonlinear finite element analysis. Four types of magnet layouts were investigated for the magnetic circuit design. It was found that a radial magnetization direction with a single magnet is suitable for the VFI-IPM machine. Magnetization controllability was investigated with respect to the magnet thickness, width and coercive force for the prototype design. The estimated variable motor speed and torque characteristics are presented.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

The Turbocharged 2.8 Liter Engine for the Datsun 280ZX

Nissan’s new 2.8 liter in-line 6-cylinder turbocharged engine was developed for Che Datsun 280ZX in order to achieve higher performance and improved fuel economy. The Electronic Concentrated Engine Control System (ECCS), controlled by microprocessor, is provided for this 2.8 liter turbocharged engine. ECCS controls fuel injection, ignition timing, EGR rate and idling speed. It solved the problems related to power and fuel economy by optimizing the control parameters. Further, this system contains a barometric pressure compensator and a detonation controller; thus, the performance of this engine is efficient over a wide range of circumstances and fuel octane ratings. During the development of the engine, computer simulation was employed to predict engine performance and select turbocharger size, valve timing and other important factors.
Technical Paper

The Nissan 2.4L In-Line 4-Cylinder Engine

Nissan's new 2.4-liter in-line, 4-cylinder gasoline engine, the “KA24E,” was developed for the worldwide automobile market, but exclusively for the North American market. It has been released for Nissan's new 1989 model, high-performance sports car, the “240SX”, and will also be mounted in such forthcoming models as the new 1990 “AXXESS”. The major objectives in developing this new engine were to achieve high performance at practical driving speeds, especially at low- and middle-engine speeds, quiet engine operation, reliability, fuel economy and serviceability, all of which are essential factors in daily driving. For realizing these objectives, multi-valves, aerodynamic intake ports, a high-rigidity cylinder block, a silent single timing chain, and hydraulic valve lash adjusters were incorporated into this engine. Furthermore, to develop the engine, almost all components were redesigned using computer design techniques, and checked by extensive testing.
Technical Paper

The New Nissan 1.7 Liter 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine

The new Nissan 1.7 liter 4 cylinder diesel engine has been developed to meet the social requirements for energy conservation. The main objective was to improve fuel economy without sacrificing driveability, and this has been achieved by minimizing engine weight, reducing mechanical friction loss and optimizing the combustion system. The CA series gasoline engine, which is known for its light weight, was chosen as the base engine for dieselization. The swirl chamber combustion system used for the LD28 engine was modified to satisfy the requirements for high power, good fuel economy and low noise. Engine noise has been reduced with the aid of several analytical methods such as laser holography. Special attention has been paid to the reduction of diesel knock which is most offensive to the ear. To install this engine in a small FWD vehicle transversely, much effort went into the minimizing of the engine length and width.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Longer Stroke on Improving Fuel Economy of a Multiple-Link VCR Engine

Some automakers have been studying variable compression ratio (VCR) technology as one possible way of improving fuel economy. In previous studies, we have developed a VCR mechanism of a unique multiple-link configuration that achieves a piston stroke characterized by semi-sinusoidal oscillation and lower piston acceleration at top dead center than on conventional mechanisms. By controlling compression ratio with this multiple-link VCR mechanism so that it optimally matches any operating condition, the mechanism has demonstrated that both lower fuel consumption and higher output power are simultaneously possible. However, it has also been observed that fuel consumption does not reduce further once the compression ratio reached a certain level. This study focused on the fact that the piston-stroke characteristic obtained with the multiple-link mechanism is suitable to a longer stroke.
Technical Paper

The Development of Driveability Index and the Effects of Gasoline Volatility on Engine Performance

To reduce engine exhaust emissions, we have had to deal with this global environmental problem from the fuel side by introducing oxygenated fuels, reducing the RVP and using low aromatics. But when we change the fuel components and distillation, we must take note about how these affect the engine driveability. We have used T50, T90, RVP and so on as the fuel index up to the present. It is possible to characterize the fuel from one aspect, but these indexes don't always represent the real feature of the fuel. In this paper we propose a New Driveability Index (here in after referred to as NDI) that is more realistic and accurate than the other fuel indexes. We used a 1600cc DOHC L4 MPI type engine. We used Model Gasolines and Market Gasolines, see Appendix(1), (2) and (3), and tested them according to the Excess Air Ratio Response Test Method (here in after referred to as λ-R Test) that was suggested in SAE paper #930375, and we calculated the NDI statistically.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions of V6 ULEVs

New technologies are needed to reduce cold-start emissions in order to meet the more stringent regulations that will go into effect in Europe (EC2000 or EC2005) and in California (ULEV), especially for larger engines such as 6- and 8-cylinder units. One new technology in this regard is the electrically heated catalyst (EHC). However, the use of EHCs alone is not sufficient to achieve the necessary reduction in emissions. This paper discusses techniques for effectively combining the elements of an EHC system, including the introduction of secondary air into the exhaust, improved control of the air/fuel ratio, and an electric power supply method for EHCs. It is shown that it is more effective to promote exothermic reactions in the exhaust manifold than at the EHC. A suitable method for this purpose is to introduce secondary air into the exhaust near the exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Technological Trends in Automotive Electronics

Although automotive electronics was initially applied as a substitute for mechanical parts, this technology has the potential to achieve effective combinations of mechanical functions. A case in point is the successful resolution of fuel consumption and exhaust emission problems by effectively integrating engine control and catalyst technologies. LSI technology has also been incorporated into automotive electronics and established as a fundamental engine control tool. Thanks to LSI technology, particularly the use of microprocessor techniques, conventional machine design problems have been transformed into logical design ones. In the next stage of application, automotive electronics is expected to provide further benefits including a more comfortable ride, an improved human-machine system interface, and an advanced communications system between vehicles and other telecommunications stations.
Technical Paper

Technique for Analyzing Swirl Injectors of Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

This paper describes the numerical and experimental approaches that were applied to study swirl injectors that are widely used in direct-injection gasoline engines. As the numerical approach, the fuel and air flow inside an injector was first analyzed by using a two-phase flow analysis method [VOF (Volume of Fluid) model]. A time-series analysis was made of the flow though the injector and also of the air cavity that forms at the nozzle and influences fuel atomization. The calculated results made clear the process from initial spray formation to liquid film formation. Spray droplet formation was then analyzed with the synthesized spheroid particle (SSP) method. As the experimental approach, in order to measure the cavity factor that represents the liquid film thickness, nozzle exit flow velocities were measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV).
Technical Paper

Swirling Flow Type Jet Pump for Transferring Fuel Inside Saddle-Shaped Fuel Tanks

This paper presents a swiring flow type jet pump which has been developed and in put into practical use in transferring fuel between sumps in saddle-shaped fuel tanks. The pump is driven by the force of excess fuel returning from the engine. The major structural features of the pump are described along with its performance. Various problems encountered in the process of developing the pump are discussed along with the technologies developed to resolve them. Particular attention is focused on the effects that the geometries if the nozzle, throat and swirling groove have on fuel transfer efficiency. The results of experiments carried out to analyze these correlations are also presented.
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.
Technical Paper

Study on Parameters Affecting NMOG Measurements and a Method to Improve its Accuracy

Nissan has developed a non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission measuring method based on California Air Resources Board (CARB) procedures.1) In addition, a system to analyze the chemical species present in the exhaust gases at Low Emission Vehicles (LEV) and Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (ULEV) levels has been created. It was found that when using an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) to achieve the low emissions for LEV and ULEV levels, the interference between exhaust HC species and the contamination of the analyzing system are a serious problem for the measurement of speciated emissions. The methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) contained in reformulated gasoline can interfere with HC speciation in the Chromatogram, requiring that the automatically speciated results be checked by a trained operator. The low exhaust HC emissions of bags 2 and 3 in the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) are nearly equal to that of the background air utilized in the constant volume sampler (CVS) dilution.
Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Study of the Generation mechanism for Abnormal Exhaust Noise

Based on experimental analysis, the generation mechanism of abnormal exhaust noise which is characterized by an intermittent high frequency aetallic sound, is clarified by bench testing of a FWD vehicle. The noise is caused by large amplitude pressure waves (finite amplitude waves) in the exhaust pipe. They are amplified due to interference between reflected waves and subsequent waves from the engine, and are finally transformed into shock waves in the propagation process along the exhaust pipe, resulting in abnormal exhaust noise. By theoretical analysis of finite amplitude waves, the wave profile in the propagation process and the transition distance to the shock wave can be solved analytically where the assumptions of mass, momentum, and energy conservation are valid, until the moment of shock wave formation. The transition distance is a key parameter in analyzing the growth and existence of shock waves.
Journal Article

Study of an On-board Fuel Reformer and Hydrogen-Added EGR Combustion in a Gasoline Engine

To improve the fuel economy via high EGR, combustion stability is enhanced through the addition of hydrogen, with its high flame-speed in air-fuel mixture. So, in order to realize on-board hydrogen production we developed a fuel reformer which produces hydrogen rich gas. One of the main issues of the reformer engine is the effects of reformate gas components on combustion performance. To clarify the effect of reformate gas contents on combustion stability, chemical kinetic simulations and single-cylinder engine test, in which hydrogen, CO, methane and simulated gas were added to intake air, were executed. And it is confirmed that hydrogen additive rate is dominant on high EGR combustion. The other issue to realize the fuel reformer was the catalyst deterioration. Catalyst reforming and exposure test were carried out to understand the influence of actual exhaust gas on the catalyst performance.
Technical Paper

Study of Fuel Dilution in Direct-Injection and Multipoint Injection Gasoline Engines

Fuel dilution is one of the phenomena requiring attention in direct-injection engines. This study examined the factors contributing to increased fuel dilution in direct-injection and conventional multipoint injection gasoline engines, focusing in particular on fuel dilution in the oil pan. The results showed that fuel dilution is affected by fuel consumption, fuel properties and oil/cooling water temperatures in multipoint injection engines. In addition to these factors, fuel injection timing is another factor that increases fuel dilution in direct-injection engines.
Journal Article

Status of FCV Development at Nissan and Future Issues

In the “Nissan Green Program 2010”, released in December 2006, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. announced plans to offer advanced technology and products to further real-world reductions in CO2 emissions. One solution is the development of a practical fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In 1996, Nissan began developing an FCV and since 2001, has participated in activities to promote the development and to educate the public on the benefits of fuel cell vehicles by participating in fleet programs in the USA (CaFCP) and in Japan (JHFC). In 2006, limited leasing of the newly-developed 2005 X-TRAIL FCV was initiated in Japan, in the Kanagawa Prefecture and in Yokohama City. In 2007, Nissan provided an X-TRAIL FCV to Kanagawa Toshi Kotsu Ltd., for use as the world's first-ever fuel cell taxi in use on pubric roads. The 2005 X-TRAIL is equipped with various newly-developed technologies, including a fuel cell stack that was engineered by Nissan in-house.