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Technical Paper

Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

It is widely recognized that future NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion and aftertreatment technologies will be required. In this study, advanced combustion modes operating with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst were evaluated on a 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and one PCCI-type (premixed charge combustion ignition) combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Five steady-state operating conditions were evaluated. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable.
Technical Paper

Nitrogen Selectivity in Lean NOx Trap Catalysis with Diesel Engine In-Cylinder Regeneration

NOx emissions have traditionally been difficult to control from diesel engines; however, lean NOx trap catalysts have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines by greater than 90% under some conditions. It is imperative that lean NOx traps be highly selective to N2 to achieve the designed NOx emissions reduction. If selectivity for NOx reduction to NH3 or N2O is significant then, ultimately, higher levels of pollution or greenhouse emissions will result. Here studies of the N2 selectivity of lean NOx trap regeneration with in-cylinder techniques are presented. Engine dynamometer studies with a light-duty engine were performed, and a lean NOx trap in the exhaust system was regenerated by controlling in-cylinder fuel injection timing and amounts to achieve rich exhaust conditions. NH3 and N2O emissions were analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Using Low Temperature Combustion

A Lean NOx Trap (LNT) regeneration method that has shown promise regarding its ability to effectively regenerate the LNT, while not adversely affecting the PM emissions, involves the use of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC). LTC is accomplished by highly diluting the intake charge with EGR.1-3* If enough EGR is applied, the in-cylinder air:fuel mixture, and ensuing exhaust, will become rich, thereby regenerating the LNT. This type of highly dilute combustion tends to be more premixed than diffusion, which can lower engine-out PM and NOx emissions. LTC regeneration has been characterized and results are presented comparing this approach to other approaches for rich, in-cylinder diesel combustion for LNT regeneration.
Technical Paper

In Situ Measurement of Fuel Absorption into the Cylinder Wall Oil Film During Engine Cold Start

The absorption of unburned fuel into the engine cylinder wall oil film has been identified as a source of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from spark-ignited (SI)engines. While significant work has been done under steady-state operating conditions to quantify the contribution of this mechanism to overall unburned hydrocarbon emissions, little work has focused on cold starting conditions and in situ measurement of the fuel / oil film interaction. The work reported here shows how laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy can be used to make in situ measurements of the absorption of fuel into the cylinder wall oil film of a single cylinder engine. Measurements were made at two points in the engine cycle under cold start conditions. Results indicate that fuel concentration in the oil film reached a maximum of fifty percent (50%) during cold start operation, though fuel was present in the oil film throughout the engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts with In-Cylinder Regeneration Strategies

Lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts with different formulations have been characterized on a light-duty diesel engine platform. Two in-cylinder regeneration strategies were used during the study. The reductant chemistry differed for both strategies with one strategy having high levels of CO and H2 and the other strategy having a higher hydrocarbon component. The matrix of LNT catalysts that were characterized included LNTs with various sorbate loads and varying ceria content; the sorbate was Ba. Intra-catalyst measurements of exhaust gas composition were obtained at one quarter, one half, and three quarters of the length of the catalysts to better understand the affect of formulation on performance. Exhaust analysis with FTIR allowed measurement of NH3 and thereby, a measurement of N2 selectivity for the catalysts. Although overall NOx conversion increased with increasing sorbate load, the formation of NH3 increased as well.
Technical Paper

Characterization of In-Cylinder Techniques for Thermal Management of Diesel Aftertreatment

One challenge in meeting emission regulations with catalytic aftertreatment systems is maintaining the proper catalyst temperatures that enable the catalytic devices to perform the emissions reduction. In this study, in-cylinder techniques are used to actively control the temperature of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) in order to raise the DPF temperature to induce particulate oxidation. The performance of four strategies is compared for two different starting DPF temperatures (150°C and 300°C) on a 4-cylinder 1.7-liter diesel engine. The four strategies include: (1) addition of extra fuel injection early in the combustion cycle for all four cylinders, (2) addition of extra fuel injection late in the combustion cycle for all four cylinders, (3) operating one-cylinder with extra fuel injection early in the combustion cycle, and (4) operating one-cylinder with extra fuel injection late in the combustion cycle.
Technical Paper

An Optical Backscatter Sensor for Particulate Matter Measurement

An optical-based sensor for detecting particulate matter (PM) in diesel engine exhaust has been demonstrated. The position of the sensor during the experiments was the exhaust manifold prior to the turbocharger. The sensor is constructed of fiber optics which transmit 532-nm laser light into the exhaust pipe and collect backscattered light in a 180° geometry. Due to the optical nature of the probe, PM sensing can occur at high temporal rates. Experiments conducted by changing the fuel injection properties of one cylinder of a four cylinder engine demonstrated that the sensor can resolve cycle dependent events. The feasibility of the probe for examining PM emissions in the exhaust manifold will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Ammonia Production and Utilization in a Hybrid LNT+SCR System

A hybrid LNT+SCR system is used to control NOx from a light-duty diesel engine with in-cylinder regeneration controls. A diesel oxidation catalyst and diesel particulate filter are upstream of the LNT and SCR catalysts. Ultraviolet (UV) adsorption spectroscopy performed directly in the exhaust path downstream of the LNT and SCR catalysts is used to characterize NH3 production and utilization in the system. Extractive exhaust samples are analyzed with FTIR and magnetic sector mass spectrometry (H2) as well. Furthermore, standard gas analyzers are used to complete the characterization of exhaust chemistry. NH3 formation increases strongly with extended regeneration (or “over regeneration”) of the LNT, but the portion of NOx reduction occurring over the SCR catalyst is limited by the amount of NH3 produced as well as the amount of NOx available downstream of the LNT. Control of lean-rich cycling parameters enables control of the ratio of NOx reduction between the LNT and SCR catalysts.