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Technical Paper

The Use of Small Engines as Surrogates for Research in Aftertreatment, Combustion, and Fuels

In this research, small, single cylinder engines have been used to simulate larger engines in the areas of aftertreatment, combustion, and fuel formulation effects. The use of small engines reduces overall research cost and allows more rapid experiments to be run. Because component costs are lower, it is also possible to investigate more variations and to sacrifice components for materials characterization and for subsequent experiments. Using small engines in this way is very successful in some cases. In other cases, limitations of the engines influence the results and need to be accounted for in the experimental design and data analysis. Some of the results achieved or limitations found may be of interest to the small engine market, and this paper is offered as a summary of the authors' research in these areas. Research is being conducted in two areas. First, small engines are being used to study the rapid aging and poisoning of exhaust aftertreatment catalysts.
Technical Paper

The Roles of Phosphorus and Soot on the Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

The deactivation of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) by soot contamination and lube-oil derived phosphorus poisoning is investigated. Pt/CeO2/γ-AI2O3 DOCs aged using three different protocols developed by the authors and six high mileage field-returned DOCs of similar formulation are evaluated for THC and CO oxidation performance using a bench-flow reactor. Collectively, these catalysts exhibit a variety of phosphorus and soot morphologies contributing to performance deactivation.
Technical Paper

Rapid Aging of Diesel Lean NOx Traps by High-Temperature Thermal Cycling

In the present study, a bench-flow reactor is used to perform lean/rich thermal cycling on model “Ba+K” LNT catalysts at temperatures of 700, 800, 900 and 1000°C using simulated diesel exhaust gases. Deterioration of NOx performance is measured and the deactivation mechanisms of thermally-aged “Ba+K” LNTs are identified using characterization techniques such as TEM, XRD and EPMA. Results indicate that the deterioration is minimal at 700 and 800°C, however, at aging temperatures exceeding 800°C the severity of thermal aging depends on aging temperature as well as number of aging cycles.
Technical Paper

Development of an Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters

The accelerated ash loading of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) with diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) mounted upstream by lube-oil derived products was investigated using a single cylinder diesel engine and fuel blended with 5% lube oil. An ash loading protocol is developed which combines soot loading, active soot regeneration, and periodic shutdowns for filter weighing. Active regeneration is accomplished by exhaust injection of diesel fuel, initiated by a backpressure criteria and providing DPF temperatures up to 700°C. In developing this protocol, five DPFs of various combinations of substrates (cordierite, silicon carbide, and mullite) and washcoats (none, low PGM, and high PGM) are used and evaluated. The initial backpressure and rate of backpressure increase with ash varied with each of the DPFs and ash was observed to have an effect on the active soot light-off temperature for the catalyzed DPFs.
Technical Paper

Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts by Oil-Derived Phosphorus

The poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) by the engine oil additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) is investigated in the present study. A 517cc single-cylinder diesel engine is used to accelerate the phosphorus poisoning of DOCs by artificially increasing the ZDDP consumption to approximately 700 times normal operation by three different methods. These include lube-oil doped fuel, intake manifold, and exhaust manifold injection with lube-oil containing an elevated level of ZDDP. The deactivation of DOCs under these conditions is characterized by a variety of physical and chemical techniques. Surface composition and structure of the poisoned catalysts analyzed with SEM-EDS show differences depending on the method of ZDDP introduction. Exhaust manifold injection produces a zinc phosphate glaze which masks the surface to species diffusion. Fuel and intake manifold injection methods produce chemically absorbed phosphorus on the catalyst washcoat surface.