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Technical Paper

New Insights into the Unique Operation of Small Pore Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst: Overlapping NH3 Desorption and Oxidation Characteristics for Minimizing Undesired Products

An operational challenge associated with SCR catalysts is the NH3 slip control, particularly for commercial small pore Cu-zeolite formulations as a consequence of their significant ammonia storage capacity. The desorption of NH3 during increasing temperature transients is one example of this challenge. Ammonia slipping from SCR catalyst typically passes through a platinum based ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOx), leading to the formation of the undesired byproducts NOx and N2O. We have discovered a distinctive characteristic, an overlapping NH3 desorption and oxidation, in a state-of-the-art Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst that can minimize NH3 slip during temperature transients encountered in real-world operation of a vehicle.
Journal Article

Neutron Diffraction Studies of Intercritically Austempered Ductile Irons

Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool that can be used to identify the phases present and to measure the spacing of the atomic planes in a material. Thus, the residual stresses can be determined within a component and/or the phases present. New intercritically austempered irons rely on the unique properties of the austenite phase present in their microstructures. If these materials are to see widespread use, methods to verify the quality (behavior consistency) of these materials and to provide guidance for further optimization will be needed. Neutron diffraction studies were performed at the second generation neutron residual stress facility (NRSF2) at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a variety of intercritically austempered irons. For similar materials, such as TRIP steels, the strengthening mechanism involves the transformation of metastable austenite to martensite during deformation.
Journal Article

Impact of Accelerated Hydrothermal Aging on Structure and Performance of Cu-SSZ-13 SCR Catalysts

In this contribution, nuanced changes of a commercial Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst with hydrothermal aging, which have not been previously reported, as well as their corresponding impact on SCR functions, are described. In particular, a sample of Cu-SSZ-13 was progressively aged between 550 to 900°C and the changes of performance in NH3 storage, oxidation functionality and NOx conversion of the catalyst were measured after hydrothermal exposure at each temperature. The catalysts thus aged were further characterized by NH3-TPD, XRD and DRIFTS techniques for structural changes. Based on the corresponding performance and structural characteristics, three different regimes of hydrothermal aging were identified, and tentatively as assigned to “mild”, “severe” and “extreme” aging. Progressive hydrothermal aging up to 750°C decreased NOx conversion to a small degree, as well as NH3 storage and oxidation functions.