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Technical Paper

Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NOx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NOx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%).
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Low Engine-Out NOx and Particulate Matter with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustion

This paper describes the simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in a modern light-duty diesel engine under high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM emissions was observed under lean conditions at several low to moderate load conditions using two different approaches. The first approach utilizes a throttle to increase EGR rate beyond the maximum rate possible with sole use of the EGR valve for a particular engine condition. The second approach does not use a throttle, but rather uses a combination of EGR and manipulation of injection parameters. A significant reduction in particulate matter size and concentration was observed corresponding to the reduction in particulate mass. This PM reduction was accompanied by a significant shift in the heat release profile. In addition, there were significant cylinder-to-cylinder variations in particulate matter characteristics, gaseous emissions, and heat release.
Technical Paper

Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Combustion Energy Release on Surface Accelerations of an HCCI Engine

Large cyclic variability along with increased combustion noise present in low temperature combustion (LTC) modes of internal combustion engines has driven the need for fast response, robust sensors for diagnostics and feedback control. Accelerometers have been shown as a possible technology for diagnostics and feedback control of advanced LTC operation in internal combustion engines. To make better use of this technology, an improved understanding is necessary of the effect of energy release from the combustion process on engine surface vibrations. This study explores the surface acceleration response for a single-cylinder engine operating with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. Preliminary investigation of the engine surface accelerations is conducted using a finite element analysis of the engine cylinder jacket along with consideration of cylindrical modes of the engine cylinder.
Technical Paper

Implications of Particulate and Precursor Compounds Formed During High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine

Advanced diesel combustion modes offer the promise of reduced engine-out particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions, thereby reducing the demand on post-combustion emission control devices. In this activity, a light-duty diesel engine was operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes. The advanced combustion modes investigated correspond to both clean (i.e., low PM and low NOX) and clean efficient combustion. The low-NOX, low-PM mode is considered an intermediate condition and the low-NOX, low-PM efficient mode is referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Particulate and gaseous emissions were analyzed during all of these experiments. The detailed exhaust chemistry analysis provided significant new information to improving our understanding of these modes as well as identifying potentially important unregulated emissions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Emissions from High Efficiency Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine

High-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) modes provide simultaneous reductions in diesel particulate matter and nitrogen-oxides emissions while retaining efficiencies characteristic of normal diesel engines. Fuel parameters may have significant impacts on the ability to operate in HECC modes and on the emissions produced in HECC modes. In this study, 3 diesel-range fuels and 2 oxygenated blends are burned in both normal and HECC modes at 3 different engine conditions. The results show that fuel effects play an important role in the emissions of hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide but do not significantly impact NOx emissions in HECC modes. HECC modes are achievable with 5% biodiesel blends in addition to petroleum-based and oil-sands derived fuels. Soot precursor and oxygenated compound concentrations in the exhaust were observed to generally increase with the sooting tendency of the fuel in HECC modes.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions of 1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP was chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic content (20 to 45%), and 90% distillation temperature (270 to 340°C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and adjusting injection parameters, such as higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Chemistry of Low-NOX, Low-PM Diesel Combustion

The exhaust chemistry of combustion regimes characterized by simultaneous low-NOX and low-PM emissions were investigated on a Mercedes 1.7-L diesel engine. Two approaches for entering low-NOX low-PM regimes were explored using a California specification low aromatic certification diesel fuel. Detailed characterizations of gas-phase hydrocarbons, particulate soluble organics, and aldehydes are presented for both approaches. Results indicate significant formation of partially oxygenated hydrocarbons and fuel reformation products during periods of low-NOX, low-PM combustion.
Journal Article

Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity-controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline-to-diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions.
Journal Article

Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has demonstrated diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are higher and similar to those of port-fuel-injected (PFI) gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures during RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatment technologies. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels.
Journal Article

Combustion Studies with FACE Diesel Fuels: A Literature Review

The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Working Group has provided a matrix of experimental diesel fuels for use in studies on the effects of three parameters, Cetane number (CN), aromatics content, and 90 vol% distillation temperature (T90), on combustion and emissions characteristics of advanced combustion strategies. Various types of fuel analyses and engine experiments were performed in well-known research institutes. This paper reviews a collection of research findings obtained with these nine fuels. An extensive collection of analyses were performed by members of the FACE working group on the FACE diesel fuels as a means of aiding in understanding the linkage between fuel properties and combustion and emissions performance. These analyses included non-traditional chemical techniques as well as established ASTM tests. In a few cases, both ASTM tests and advanced analyses agreed that some design variables differed from their target values when the fuels were produced.
Technical Paper

An Estimate of Diesel High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Impacts on FTP-75 Aftertreatment Requirements

A modified Mercedes 1.7-liter, direct-injection diesel engine was operated in both normal and high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) combustion modes. Four steady-state engine operating points that were previously identified by the Ad-hoc fuels working group were used as test points to allow estimation of the hot-start FTP-75 emissions levels in both normal and HECC combustion modes. The results indicate that operation in HECC modes generally produce reductions in NOX and PM emissions at the expense of CO, NMHC, and H2CO emissions. The FTP emissions estimates indicate that aftertreatment requirements for NOX are reduced, while those for PM may not be impacted. Cycle-average aftertreatment requirements for CO, NMHC, and H2CO may be challenging, especially at the lowest temperature conditions.
Technical Paper

A Thermal Conductivity Approach for Measuring Hydrogen in Engine Exhaust

Thermal conductivity detection has long been used in gas chromatography to detect hydrogen and other diatomic gases in a gas sample. Thermal conductivity instruments that are not coupled to gas chromatographs are useful for detecting hydrogen in binary gas mixtures, but suffer from significant cross-interference from other gas species that are separated when the detector is used with a gas chromatograph. This study reports a method for using a commercially-available thermal conductivity instrument to detect and quantify hydrogen in a diesel exhaust stream. The instrument time response of approximately 40 seconds is sufficient for steady-state applications. Cross-interference from relevant gas species are quantified and discussed. Measurement uncertainty associated with the corrections for the various species is estimated and practical implications for use of the instrument and method are discussed.