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Technical Paper

Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2493
It is widely recognized that future NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion and aftertreatment technologies will be required. In this study, advanced combustion modes operating with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst were evaluated on a 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and one PCCI-type (premixed charge combustion ignition) combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Five steady-state operating conditions were evaluated. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Engine and Aftertreatment System Control Using Fast Response Particulate Filter Sensors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0918
Radio frequency (RF)-based sensors provide a direct measure of the particulate filter loading state. In contrast to particulate matter (PM) sensors, which monitor the concentration of PM in the exhaust gas stream for on-board diagnostics purposes, RF sensors have historically been applied to monitor and control the particulate filter regeneration process. This work developed an RF-based particulate filter control system utilizing both conventional and fast response RF sensors, and evaluated the feasibility of applying fast-response RF sensors to provide a real-time measurement of engine-out PM emissions. Testing with a light-duty diesel engine equipped with fast response RF sensors investigated the potential to utilize the particulate filter itself as an engine-out soot sensor.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) on a Light Duty Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1596
Low temperature combustion (LTC) has been shown to yield higher brake thermal efficiencies with lower NOx and soot emissions, relative to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). However, while demonstrating low soot carbon emissions it has been shown that LTC operation does produce particulate matter whose composition appears to be much different than CDC. The particulate matter emissions from dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) using gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated in this study. A four cylinder General Motors 1.9L ZDTH engine was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. RCCI operation was carried out using a certification grade 97 research octane gasoline and a certification grade diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Loading and Regeneration Analysis of a Diesel Particulate Filter with a Radio Frequency-Based Sensor

2010-10-25
2010-01-2126
Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) particulate matter (PM) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) - based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF particulate matter levels. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based total PM emission measurement instrument (TEOM) and DPF gravimetric measurements.
Journal Article

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

2010-10-25
2010-01-2267
Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H₂, CO, NH₃, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2206
In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline with diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 5.5 bar net mean effective pressure (NMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system.
Technical Paper

High Speed H2O Concentration Measurements Using Absorption Spectroscopy to Monitor Exhaust Gas

2009-04-20
2009-01-0239
This paper demonstrates the potential for fast absorption spectroscopy measurements in diesel-engine exhaust to track H2O concentration transients. Wavelength-agile absorption spectroscopy is an optical technique that measures broadband absorption spectra between 10 kHz and 100 MHz. From these measured spectra, gas temperature and absorber concentrations can be determined. We introduce a laser spectroscopy system for high speed (10 μs) diesel exhaust measurements in the presence of significant particulate matter. The sensor can be broadly applicable for understanding the dynamics of EGR distribution, cycle-to-cycle stability, cylinder-to-cylinder charge uniformity, and NOX regeneration strategies. The method precision is 10% and 5%, for individual 10-μs measurements and 2-ms averaged measurements, respectively. The sensitivity or detection limit of the measurement is 0.5% H2O.
Technical Paper

Effects of NOX Storage Component on Ammonia Formation in TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control in Lean Gasoline Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0946
A prototype three-way catalyst (TWC) with NOX storage component was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly-rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. Adding a NOX storage component to a TWC provides two benefits in the context of a passive SCR system: (1) enabling longer lean operation by storing NOX upstream and preserving NH3 inventory on the downstream SCR catalyst; and (2) increasing the quantity and rate of NH3 production during rich operation.
Technical Paper

Continuous Particulate Filter State of Health Monitoring Using Radio Frequency Sensing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1260
Reliable means for on-board detection of particulate filter failures or malfunctions are needed to meet diagnostics (OBD) requirements. Detecting these failures, which result in tailpipe particulate matter (PM) emissions exceeding the OBD limit, over all operating conditions is challenging. Current approaches employ differential pressure sensors and downstream PM sensors, in combination with particulate filter and engine-out soot models. These conventional monitors typically operate over narrowly-defined time windows and do not provide a direct measure of the filter’s state of health. In contrast, radio frequency (RF) sensors, which transmit a wireless signal through the filter substrate provide a direct means for interrogating the condition of the filter itself.
Technical Paper

An Optical Backscatter Sensor for Particulate Matter Measurement

2009-04-20
2009-01-0687
An optical-based sensor for detecting particulate matter (PM) in diesel engine exhaust has been demonstrated. The position of the sensor during the experiments was the exhaust manifold prior to the turbocharger. The sensor is constructed of fiber optics which transmit 532-nm laser light into the exhaust pipe and collect backscattered light in a 180° geometry. Due to the optical nature of the probe, PM sensing can occur at high temporal rates. Experiments conducted by changing the fuel injection properties of one cylinder of a four cylinder engine demonstrated that the sensor can resolve cycle dependent events. The feasibility of the probe for examining PM emissions in the exhaust manifold will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Ammonia Production and Utilization in a Hybrid LNT+SCR System

2009-11-02
2009-01-2739
A hybrid LNT+SCR system is used to control NOx from a light-duty diesel engine with in-cylinder regeneration controls. A diesel oxidation catalyst and diesel particulate filter are upstream of the LNT and SCR catalysts. Ultraviolet (UV) adsorption spectroscopy performed directly in the exhaust path downstream of the LNT and SCR catalysts is used to characterize NH3 production and utilization in the system. Extractive exhaust samples are analyzed with FTIR and magnetic sector mass spectrometry (H2) as well. Furthermore, standard gas analyzers are used to complete the characterization of exhaust chemistry. NH3 formation increases strongly with extended regeneration (or “over regeneration”) of the LNT, but the portion of NOx reduction occurring over the SCR catalyst is limited by the amount of NH3 produced as well as the amount of NOx available downstream of the LNT. Control of lean-rich cycling parameters enables control of the ratio of NOx reduction between the LNT and SCR catalysts.
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