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Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Particulate Emissions During Enrichment for Diesel Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

Laser-induced incandescence is used to measure time-resolved diesel particulate emissions for two lean NOx trap regeneration strategies that utilize intake throttling and in-cylinder fuel enrichment. The results show that when the main injection event is increased in duration and delayed 13 crank-angle degrees, particulate emissions are very high. For a repetitive pattern of 3 seconds of rich regeneration followed by 27 seconds of NOx-trap loading, we find a monotonic increase in particulate emissions during the loading intervals that approaches twice the initial baseline particulate level after 1000 seconds. In contrast, particulate emissions during the regeneration intervals are constant throughout the test sequence.
Technical Paper

The Use of Small Engines as Surrogates for Research in Aftertreatment, Combustion, and Fuels

In this research, small, single cylinder engines have been used to simulate larger engines in the areas of aftertreatment, combustion, and fuel formulation effects. The use of small engines reduces overall research cost and allows more rapid experiments to be run. Because component costs are lower, it is also possible to investigate more variations and to sacrifice components for materials characterization and for subsequent experiments. Using small engines in this way is very successful in some cases. In other cases, limitations of the engines influence the results and need to be accounted for in the experimental design and data analysis. Some of the results achieved or limitations found may be of interest to the small engine market, and this paper is offered as a summary of the authors' research in these areas. Research is being conducted in two areas. First, small engines are being used to study the rapid aging and poisoning of exhaust aftertreatment catalysts.
Technical Paper

Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

It is widely recognized that future NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion and aftertreatment technologies will be required. In this study, advanced combustion modes operating with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst were evaluated on a 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and one PCCI-type (premixed charge combustion ignition) combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Five steady-state operating conditions were evaluated. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable.
Technical Paper

Steel Processing Effects on Impact Deformation of UltraLight Steel Auto Body

The objective of the research presented in this paper was to assess the influence of stamping process on crash response of UltraLight Steel Auto Body (ULSAB) [1] vehicle. Considered forming effects included thickness variations and plastic strain hardening imparted in the part forming process. The as-formed thickness and plastic strain for front crash parts were used as input data for vehicle crash analysis. Differences in structural performance between crash models with and without forming data were analyzed in order to determine the effects and feasibility of integration of forming processes and crash models.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Catalytic Oxidation and Selective Catalytic NOx Reduction in Lean-Exhaust Hybrid Vehicles

We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel-powered hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles (HEVs and PHEVs). The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of commercially available Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust.
Journal Article

Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

We compare the simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional heavy duty (HD) truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential benefit for HD hybrid vehicles during highway driving.
Technical Paper

Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst in Lean Gasoline Engine Exhaust

Ethanol is a very effective reductant for nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environments. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the U.S., lean gasoline engines equipped with Ag/Al2O3 catalysts have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for evaluation of catalyst performance.
Technical Paper

Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx Emissions from a 5.9 Liter Diesel Engine Using Ethanol as a Reductant

NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400°C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx reduction appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR reductant was demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Engine and Aftertreatment System Control Using Fast Response Particulate Filter Sensors

Radio frequency (RF)-based sensors provide a direct measure of the particulate filter loading state. In contrast to particulate matter (PM) sensors, which monitor the concentration of PM in the exhaust gas stream for on-board diagnostics purposes, RF sensors have historically been applied to monitor and control the particulate filter regeneration process. This work developed an RF-based particulate filter control system utilizing both conventional and fast response RF sensors, and evaluated the feasibility of applying fast-response RF sensors to provide a real-time measurement of engine-out PM emissions. Testing with a light-duty diesel engine equipped with fast response RF sensors investigated the potential to utilize the particulate filter itself as an engine-out soot sensor.
Technical Paper

Rapid In Situ Measurement of Fuel Dilution of Oil in a Diesel Engine using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

A technique for rapid in situ measurement of the fuel dilution of oil in a diesel engine is presented. Fuel dilution can occur when advanced in-cylinder fuel injection techniques are employed for the purpose of producing rich exhaust for lean NOx trap catalyst regeneration. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy is used to monitor the oil in a Mercedes 1.7-liter engine operated on a dynamometer platform. A fluorescent dye suitable for use in diesel fuel and oil systems is added to the engine fuel. The LIF spectra are monitored to detect the growth of the dye signal relative to the background oil fluorescence; fuel mass concentration is quantified based on a known sample set. The technique was implemented with fiber optic probes which can be inserted at various points in the engine oil system. A low cost 532-nm laser diode was used for excitation.
Technical Paper

Rapid Aging of Diesel Lean NOx Traps by High-Temperature Thermal Cycling

In the present study, a bench-flow reactor is used to perform lean/rich thermal cycling on model “Ba+K” LNT catalysts at temperatures of 700, 800, 900 and 1000°C using simulated diesel exhaust gases. Deterioration of NOx performance is measured and the deactivation mechanisms of thermally-aged “Ba+K” LNTs are identified using characterization techniques such as TEM, XRD and EPMA. Results indicate that the deterioration is minimal at 700 and 800°C, however, at aging temperatures exceeding 800°C the severity of thermal aging depends on aging temperature as well as number of aging cycles.
Technical Paper

Product Selectivity During Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

NOx reduction product speciation during regeneration of a fully formulated lean NOx trap catalyst has been investigated using a bench-scale flow reactor. NH3 and N2O were both observed during the regeneration phase of fast lean/rich cycles that simulated engine operation. Formation of both products increased with higher reductant concentrations and lower temperatures. Steady flow experiments were used to decouple the regeneration reactions from the NOx storage and release processes. This approach enabled a detailed investigation into the reactions that cause both formation and destruction of non-N2 reduction products. Pseudo-steady state experiments with simultaneous flow of NOx and reductant indicated that high concentrations of CO or H2 drive the reduction reactions toward NH3 formation, while mixtures that are stoichiometric for N2 formation favor N2. These experiments also showed that NH3 is readily oxidized by both NO and O2 over the LNT catalyst.
Technical Paper

Predictive Model and Methodology for Heat Treatment Distortion

The heat treatment of steel parts is an essential step in the manufacturing of high-performance components for a variety of commercial and military products. Distortion in the size and shape of parts resulting from the heat treatment process is a pervasive manufacturing problem that causes higher finishing costs, excessive scrap and rework, long delivery times, and negative environmental impact. To date, techniques that have been developed to reduce or eliminate heat treatment distortion are largely based on experience and have been limited to trial and error. This presentation describes the philosophy and results of an ongoing collaborative project to develop a methodology and computer simulation capability to predict ferrous alloy component response (distortion, residual stress, and microstructure) to industrial heat treatment processes for automotive, truck, bearing, and aerospace applications.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Half-Heusler Thermoelectric Generator for Automotive Application

Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been researched and developed for harvesting energy from otherwise wasted heat. For automotive applications this will most likely involve using internal combustion engine exhaust as the heat source, with the TEG positioned after the catalyst system. Applications to exhaust gas recirculation systems and compressed air coolers have also been suggested. A thermoelectric generator based on half-Heusler thermoelectric materials was developed, engineered, and fabricated, targeting a gasoline passenger sedan application. This generator was installed on a gasoline engine exhaust system in a dynamometer cell, and positioned immediately downstream of the close-coupled three-way catalyst. The generator was characterized using a matrix of steady-state conditions representing the important portions of the engine map. Detailed performance results are presented.
Technical Paper

Overview of Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program

This paper describes the results of Phase 1 of the Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program. The objective of the program is to determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emissions control systems that could be used to lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from vehicles with diesel engines. The DECSE program has now issued four interim reports for its first phase, with conclusions about the effect of diesel sulfur level on PM and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions from the high-temperature lean-NOx catalyst, the increase of engine-out sulfate emissions with higher sulfur fuel levels, the effect of sulfur content on NOx adsorber conversion efficiencies, and the effect of fuel sulfur content on diesel oxidation catalysts, causing increased PM emissions above engine-out emissions under certain operating conditions.
Journal Article

On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing

The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications.
Technical Paper

On the Nature of Cyclic Dispersion in Spark Assisted HCCI Combustion

We report experimental observations of cyclic combustion variability during the transition between propagating flame combustion and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) in a single-cylinder, stoichiometrically fueled, spark-assisted gasoline engine. The level of internal EGR was controlled with variable valve actuation (VVA), and HCCI combustion was achieved at high levels of internal EGR using the VVA system. Spark-ignition was used for conventional combustion and was optionally available during HCCI. The transition region between purely propagating combustion and HCCI was mapped at multiple engine speeds and loads by incrementally adjusting the internal EGR level and capturing data for 2800 sequential cycles. These measurements revealed a complex sequence of high COV, cyclic combustion variations when operating between the propagating flame and HCCI limits.
Technical Paper

Nondestructive X-ray Inspection of Thermal Damage, Soot and Ash Distributions in Diesel Particulate Filters

We describe novel results of ongoing research at 3DX-RAY Ltd and Oak Ridge National Laboratory using new, commercially available, nondestructive x-ray techniques to make engineering measurements of diesel particulate filters (DPF). Nondestructive x-ray imaging and data-analysis techniques were developed to detect and visualize the small density changes corresponding to the addition of substances such as soot and ash to DPF monoliths. The usefulness of this technique was explored through the analysis of field-aged samples, accelerated-aged samples, and the synthetic addition of ash and soot to clean DPF samples. We demonstrate the ability to visualize and measure flaws in substrates and quantify the distribution of ash and soot within the DPF. We also show that the technology is sensitive enough for evaluations of soot and ash distribution and thermal damage without removing the DPF from its metal casing.
Technical Paper

Nitrogen Selectivity in Lean NOx Trap Catalysis with Diesel Engine In-Cylinder Regeneration

NOx emissions have traditionally been difficult to control from diesel engines; however, lean NOx trap catalysts have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines by greater than 90% under some conditions. It is imperative that lean NOx traps be highly selective to N2 to achieve the designed NOx emissions reduction. If selectivity for NOx reduction to NH3 or N2O is significant then, ultimately, higher levels of pollution or greenhouse emissions will result. Here studies of the N2 selectivity of lean NOx trap regeneration with in-cylinder techniques are presented. Engine dynamometer studies with a light-duty engine were performed, and a lean NOx trap in the exhaust system was regenerated by controlling in-cylinder fuel injection timing and amounts to achieve rich exhaust conditions. NH3 and N2O emissions were analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy.
Technical Paper

New Insights into the Unique Operation of Small Pore Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst: Overlapping NH3 Desorption and Oxidation Characteristics for Minimizing Undesired Products

An operational challenge associated with SCR catalysts is the NH3 slip control, particularly for commercial small pore Cu-zeolite formulations as a consequence of their significant ammonia storage capacity. The desorption of NH3 during increasing temperature transients is one example of this challenge. Ammonia slipping from SCR catalyst typically passes through a platinum based ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOx), leading to the formation of the undesired byproducts NOx and N2O. We have discovered a distinctive characteristic, an overlapping NH3 desorption and oxidation, in a state-of-the-art Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst that can minimize NH3 slip during temperature transients encountered in real-world operation of a vehicle.