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Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

Ultrasonic Spot Welding of Galvanized Mild Steel to Magnesium AZ31B

2012-04-16
2012-01-0474
Ultrasonic spot welding (USW) is a promising joining method for magnesium to steel to overcome the difficulties of fusion welding for these two materials with significant differences in melting temperatures. In a previous paper, the results of ultrasonic spot welding of magnesium to steel, with sonotrode engaged Mg piece, was presented. In this study, same material combination (0.8-mm-thick galvanized mild steel and 1.6-mm Mg AZ31B-H24) was used, but with sonotrode engaging steel piece. Various welding time, from 0.4 to 2.0 sec, were applied. Tensile lap-shear test, optical metallography, and scanning electron micrography were conducted for joint strength measurement and microstructural evaluation. The joint strength reached over 4.2 kN at 1.8 sec welding time. Mg-Zn eutectic was formed at the interface, indicating the interfacial temperature over 344°C. The study demonstrated USW to be a viable process for potential manufacturing of mixed-metal joints.
Journal Article

Ultrasonic Spot Welding of AZ31B to Galvanized Mild Steel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0975
Ultrasonic spot welds were made between sheets of 0.8-mm-thick hot-dip-galvanized mild steel and 1.6-mm-thick AZ31B-H24. Lap-shear strengths of 3.0-4.2 kN were achieved with weld times of 0.3-1.2 s. Failure to achieve strong bonding of joints where the Zn coating was removed from the steel surface indicate that Zn is essential to the bonding mechanism. Microstructure characterization and microchemical analysis indicated temperatures at the AZ31-steel interfaces reached at least 344°C in less than 0.3 s. The elevated temperature conditions promoted annealing of the AZ31-H24 metal and chemical reactions between it and the Zn coating.
Technical Paper

ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2802
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has emerged as an important issue in diesel engine development. Uncertainty about the level of impact that fuel chemistry may have upon this issue has resulted in a need to investigate the cooler fouling process with emerging non-traditional fuel sources to gage their impact on the process. This study reports experiments using both ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel (B20) at elevated exhaust hydrocarbon conditions to investigate the EGR cooler fouling process. The results show that there is little difference between the degradation in cooler effectiveness for ULSD and B20 at identical conditions. At lower coolant temperatures, B20 exhibits elevated organic fractions in the deposits compared with ULSD, but this does not appear to lead to incremental performance degradation under the conditions studied.
Technical Paper

Tribological Characteristics of Electrolytic Coatings for Aluminum Engine Cylinder Lining Applications

2002-03-04
2002-01-0490
The friction and wear characteristics of three commercially-available, electrolytic coatings for aluminum engine cylinder bores were compared to those of cast iron liners. A Ni/SiC electrocomposite, a hard anodized treatment, and a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated. ASTM standard test method G133-95, non-firing test method, for linearly reciprocating sliding wear was modified to use segments of piston rings and cylinder liners. Tests were conducted using Mr. Goodwrench™ 5W30 as a lubricant at room temperature. The normal force was 150N, the reciprocating frequency was 15Hz, the stroke length was 8mm, and the test duration was 60 minutes. Kinetic friction coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.22, typical of boundary lubrication. The Ni/SiC and cast iron samples exhibited the lowest friction. The wear resistance of the Ni/SiC coating was superior to that of cast iron.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements of Emission Transients By Mass Spectrometry

2000-10-16
2000-01-2952
High-speed diagnostics capable of accurately resolving emission transients are required to provide the most detailed understanding and optimization of active exhaust-emissions-treatment processes, such as NOX adsorbers. A portable, mass-spectrometry-based instrument with high temporal resolution, linear response and broad dynamic range is described. This instrument provides transient-concentration measurement capability for many relevant exhaust species including total NOX. In applications for evaluation of NOX-adsorber systems using heavy-duty diesel engines, the instrument revealed relevant emission transients not previously resolved with conventional analyzers. Specifically, the instrument resolved transient emissions associated with the competition between desorption and reduction rates. The temporal resolution of the instruments is sufficient to resolve kinetic rates of the NOX-adsorber system.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Particulate Emissions During Enrichment for Diesel Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

2005-04-11
2005-01-0186
Laser-induced incandescence is used to measure time-resolved diesel particulate emissions for two lean NOx trap regeneration strategies that utilize intake throttling and in-cylinder fuel enrichment. The results show that when the main injection event is increased in duration and delayed 13 crank-angle degrees, particulate emissions are very high. For a repetitive pattern of 3 seconds of rich regeneration followed by 27 seconds of NOx-trap loading, we find a monotonic increase in particulate emissions during the loading intervals that approaches twice the initial baseline particulate level after 1000 seconds. In contrast, particulate emissions during the regeneration intervals are constant throughout the test sequence.
Technical Paper

Time Irreversibility and Comparison of Cyclic-Variability Models

1999-03-01
1999-01-0221
We describe a method for detecting and quantifying time irreversibility in experimental engine data. We apply this method to experimental heat-release measurements from four spark-ignited engines under leaning fueling conditions. We demonstrate that the observed behavior is inconsistent with a linear Gaussian random process and is more appropriately described as a noisy nonlinear dynamical process.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW)

2006-04-03
2006-01-1392
This paper presents on-going finite element modeling efforts of friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process using Abaqus/Explicit as a finite element solver. Three-dimensional coupled thermal-stress model was used to calculate thermo-mechanical response of FSSW process. Adaptive meshing and advection schemes, which makes it possible to maintain mesh quality under large deformations, is utilized to simulate the material flow and temperature distribution in FSSW process. The predicted overall deformation shape of the weld joint resembles that experimentally observed. Temperature and stress graphs in the radial direction as well as temperature-deformation distribution plots are presented.
Technical Paper

The Use of Small Engines as Surrogates for Research in Aftertreatment, Combustion, and Fuels

2006-11-13
2006-32-0035
In this research, small, single cylinder engines have been used to simulate larger engines in the areas of aftertreatment, combustion, and fuel formulation effects. The use of small engines reduces overall research cost and allows more rapid experiments to be run. Because component costs are lower, it is also possible to investigate more variations and to sacrifice components for materials characterization and for subsequent experiments. Using small engines in this way is very successful in some cases. In other cases, limitations of the engines influence the results and need to be accounted for in the experimental design and data analysis. Some of the results achieved or limitations found may be of interest to the small engine market, and this paper is offered as a summary of the authors' research in these areas. Research is being conducted in two areas. First, small engines are being used to study the rapid aging and poisoning of exhaust aftertreatment catalysts.
Technical Paper

The Use of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations to Evaluate the Robustness of Variable Compression Ratio as a Control Method for Gasoline HCCI

2007-04-16
2007-01-0224
On a gasoline engine platform, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds the promise of improved fuel economy and greatly reduced engine-out NOx emissions, without an increase in particulate matter emissions. In this investigation, a variable compression ratio (CR) engine equipped with a throttle and intake air heating was used to test the robustness of these control parameters to accommodate a series of fuels blended from reference gasoline, straight run refinery naphtha, and ethanol. Higher compression ratios allowed for operation with higher octane fuels, but operation could not be achieved with the reference gasoline, even at the highest compression ratio. Compression ratio and intake heat could be used separately or together to modulate combustion. A lambda of 2 provided optimum fuel efficiency, even though some throttling was necessary to achieve this condition. Ethanol did not appear to assist combustion, although only two ethanol-containing fuels were evaluated.
Technical Paper

The Relationships of Diesel Fuel Properties, Chemistry, and HCCI Engine Performance as Determined by Principal Components Analysis

2007-10-29
2007-01-4059
In order to meet common fuel specifications such as cetane number and volatility, a refinery must blend a number of refinery stocks derived from various process units in the refinery. Fuel chemistry can be significantly altered in meeting fuel specifications. Additionally, fuel specifications are seldom changed in isolation, and the drive to meet one specification may alter other specifications. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines depend on the kinetic behavior of a fuel to achieve reliable ignition and are expected to be more dependent on fuel specifications and chemistry than today's conventional engines. Regression analysis can help in determining the underlying relationships between fuel specifications, chemistry, and engine performance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used as an adjunct to regression analysis in this work, because of its ability to deal with co-linear variables and potential to uncover ‘hidden’ relationships between the variables.
Journal Article

The Reduced Effectiveness of EGR to Mitigate Knock at High Loads in Boosted SI Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0061
Numerous studies have demonstrated that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can attenuate knock propensity in spark ignition (SI) engines at naturally aspirated or lightly boosted conditions [1]. In this study, we investigate the role of cooled EGR under higher load conditions with multiple fuel compositions, where highly retarded combustion phasing typical of modern SI engines was used. It was found that under these conditions, EGR attenuation of knock is greatly reduced, where EGR doesn’t allow significant combustion phasing advance as it does under lighter load conditions. Detailed combustion analysis shows that when EGR is added, the polytropic coefficient increases causing the compressive pressure and temperature to increase. At sufficiently highly boosted conditions, the increase in polytropic coefficient and additional trapped mass from EGR can sufficiently reduce fuel ignition delay to overcome knock attenuation effects.
Journal Article

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on the Knock Limit of “E85”

2013-04-08
2013-01-0888
Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called “E85,” underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane “E85” fuel.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal Efficiency in an HCCI Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4076
The effects of variable compression ratio (CR) and fuel composition on thermal efficiency were investigated in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using blends of n-heptane and toluene with research octane numbers (RON) of 0 to 90. Experiments were conducted by performing CR sweeps at multiple intake temperatures using both unthrottled operation, and constant Φ conditions by throttling to compensate for varying air density. It was found that CR is effective at changing and controlling the HCCI combustion phasing midpoint, denoted here as CA 50. Thermal efficiency was a strong function of CA 50, with overly advanced CA 50 leading to efficiency decreases. Increases in CR at a constant CA 50 for a given fuel composition did, in most cases, increase efficiency, but the relationship was weaker than the dependence of efficiency on CA 50.
Technical Paper

The Chemistry, Properties, and HCCI Combustion Behavior of Refinery Streams Derived from Canadian Oil Sands Crude

2008-10-06
2008-01-2406
Diesel fuels derived from different types of crude oil can exhibit different chemistry while still meeting market requirements and specifications. Oil sands derived fuels typically contain a larger proportion of cycloparaffinic compounds, which result from the cracking and hydrotreating of bitumens in the crude. In the current study, 17 refinery streams consisting of finished fuels and process streams were obtained from a refinery using 100% oil sands derived crude oil. All samples except one met the ULSD standard of 15 ppm sulfur. The samples were characterized for properties and chemistry and run in a simple premixed HCCI engine using intake heating for combustion phasing control. Results indicate that the streams could be equally well characterized by chemistry or properties, and some simple correlations are presented. Cetane number was found to relate mainly to mono-aromatic content and the cycloparaffins did not appear to possess any unique diesel related chemical effects.
Technical Paper

Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2493
It is widely recognized that future NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion and aftertreatment technologies will be required. In this study, advanced combustion modes operating with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst were evaluated on a 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and one PCCI-type (premixed charge combustion ignition) combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Five steady-state operating conditions were evaluated. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable.
Technical Paper

Symbolic Time-Series Analysis of Engine Combustion Measurements

1998-02-23
980624
We present techniques of symbolic time-series analysis which are useful for analyzing temporal patterns in dynamic measurements of engine combustion variables. We focus primarily on techniques that characterize predictability and the occurrence of repeating temporal patterns. These methods can be applied to standard, cycle-resolved engine combustion measurements, such as IMEP and heat release. The techniques are especially useful in cases with high levels of measurement and/or dynamic noise. We illustrate their application to experimental data from a production V8 engine and a laboratory single-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

Steel Processing Effects on Impact Deformation of UltraLight Steel Auto Body

2001-03-05
2001-01-1056
The objective of the research presented in this paper was to assess the influence of stamping process on crash response of UltraLight Steel Auto Body (ULSAB) [1] vehicle. Considered forming effects included thickness variations and plastic strain hardening imparted in the part forming process. The as-formed thickness and plastic strain for front crash parts were used as input data for vehicle crash analysis. Differences in structural performance between crash models with and without forming data were analyzed in order to determine the effects and feasibility of integration of forming processes and crash models.
Technical Paper

Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2501
This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NOx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NOx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%).
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