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Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

Ultrasonic Spot Welding of Galvanized Mild Steel to Magnesium AZ31B

2012-04-16
2012-01-0474
Ultrasonic spot welding (USW) is a promising joining method for magnesium to steel to overcome the difficulties of fusion welding for these two materials with significant differences in melting temperatures. In a previous paper, the results of ultrasonic spot welding of magnesium to steel, with sonotrode engaged Mg piece, was presented. In this study, same material combination (0.8-mm-thick galvanized mild steel and 1.6-mm Mg AZ31B-H24) was used, but with sonotrode engaging steel piece. Various welding time, from 0.4 to 2.0 sec, were applied. Tensile lap-shear test, optical metallography, and scanning electron micrography were conducted for joint strength measurement and microstructural evaluation. The joint strength reached over 4.2 kN at 1.8 sec welding time. Mg-Zn eutectic was formed at the interface, indicating the interfacial temperature over 344°C. The study demonstrated USW to be a viable process for potential manufacturing of mixed-metal joints.
Journal Article

Ultrasonic Spot Welding of AZ31B to Galvanized Mild Steel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0975
Ultrasonic spot welds were made between sheets of 0.8-mm-thick hot-dip-galvanized mild steel and 1.6-mm-thick AZ31B-H24. Lap-shear strengths of 3.0-4.2 kN were achieved with weld times of 0.3-1.2 s. Failure to achieve strong bonding of joints where the Zn coating was removed from the steel surface indicate that Zn is essential to the bonding mechanism. Microstructure characterization and microchemical analysis indicated temperatures at the AZ31-steel interfaces reached at least 344°C in less than 0.3 s. The elevated temperature conditions promoted annealing of the AZ31-H24 metal and chemical reactions between it and the Zn coating.
Technical Paper

Tribological Characteristics of Electrolytic Coatings for Aluminum Engine Cylinder Lining Applications

2002-03-04
2002-01-0490
The friction and wear characteristics of three commercially-available, electrolytic coatings for aluminum engine cylinder bores were compared to those of cast iron liners. A Ni/SiC electrocomposite, a hard anodized treatment, and a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated. ASTM standard test method G133-95, non-firing test method, for linearly reciprocating sliding wear was modified to use segments of piston rings and cylinder liners. Tests were conducted using Mr. Goodwrench™ 5W30 as a lubricant at room temperature. The normal force was 150N, the reciprocating frequency was 15Hz, the stroke length was 8mm, and the test duration was 60 minutes. Kinetic friction coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.22, typical of boundary lubrication. The Ni/SiC and cast iron samples exhibited the lowest friction. The wear resistance of the Ni/SiC coating was superior to that of cast iron.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Particulate Emissions During Enrichment for Diesel Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

2005-04-11
2005-01-0186
Laser-induced incandescence is used to measure time-resolved diesel particulate emissions for two lean NOx trap regeneration strategies that utilize intake throttling and in-cylinder fuel enrichment. The results show that when the main injection event is increased in duration and delayed 13 crank-angle degrees, particulate emissions are very high. For a repetitive pattern of 3 seconds of rich regeneration followed by 27 seconds of NOx-trap loading, we find a monotonic increase in particulate emissions during the loading intervals that approaches twice the initial baseline particulate level after 1000 seconds. In contrast, particulate emissions during the regeneration intervals are constant throughout the test sequence.
Technical Paper

Thermographic Measurements of Volatile Particulate Matter

2015-09-01
2015-01-1992
Semi-volatile species in the exhaust can condense on the primary particulate matter (PM) forming significant secondary PM mass downstream1. We developed a new thermographic technique to measure the volatility of a particle population. The instrument is called vapor-particle separator (VPS)2. A two-parameter model was used to interpret the thermographic data3. These two parameters define volatilization potential and thermodynamic capacity of the particles. The volatization potential delineates the unique particle volatility, while the thermodynamic capacity illustrates the work required to eliminate the particles. The thermodynamic capacity is found much smaller for small particles than that for large particles.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW)

2006-04-03
2006-01-1392
This paper presents on-going finite element modeling efforts of friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process using Abaqus/Explicit as a finite element solver. Three-dimensional coupled thermal-stress model was used to calculate thermo-mechanical response of FSSW process. Adaptive meshing and advection schemes, which makes it possible to maintain mesh quality under large deformations, is utilized to simulate the material flow and temperature distribution in FSSW process. The predicted overall deformation shape of the weld joint resembles that experimentally observed. Temperature and stress graphs in the radial direction as well as temperature-deformation distribution plots are presented.
Technical Paper

Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating - Component and System Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0244
Cabin heating of current electric vehicle (EV) designs is typically provided using electrical energy from the traction battery, since waste heat is not available from an engine as in the case of a conventional automobile. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required for space heating of an EV can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, its driving range can be reduced very significantly during the winter season, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage from an advanced phase change material (PCM) has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).
Technical Paper

The Use of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations to Evaluate the Robustness of Variable Compression Ratio as a Control Method for Gasoline HCCI

2007-04-16
2007-01-0224
On a gasoline engine platform, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds the promise of improved fuel economy and greatly reduced engine-out NOx emissions, without an increase in particulate matter emissions. In this investigation, a variable compression ratio (CR) engine equipped with a throttle and intake air heating was used to test the robustness of these control parameters to accommodate a series of fuels blended from reference gasoline, straight run refinery naphtha, and ethanol. Higher compression ratios allowed for operation with higher octane fuels, but operation could not be achieved with the reference gasoline, even at the highest compression ratio. Compression ratio and intake heat could be used separately or together to modulate combustion. A lambda of 2 provided optimum fuel efficiency, even though some throttling was necessary to achieve this condition. Ethanol did not appear to assist combustion, although only two ethanol-containing fuels were evaluated.
Technical Paper

The Roles of Phosphorus and Soot on the Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0628
The deactivation of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) by soot contamination and lube-oil derived phosphorus poisoning is investigated. Pt/CeO2/γ-AI2O3 DOCs aged using three different protocols developed by the authors and six high mileage field-returned DOCs of similar formulation are evaluated for THC and CO oxidation performance using a bench-flow reactor. Collectively, these catalysts exhibit a variety of phosphorus and soot morphologies contributing to performance deactivation.
Journal Article

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on the Knock Limit of “E85”

2013-04-08
2013-01-0888
Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called “E85,” underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane “E85” fuel.
Technical Paper

Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2493
It is widely recognized that future NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion and aftertreatment technologies will be required. In this study, advanced combustion modes operating with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst were evaluated on a 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and one PCCI-type (premixed charge combustion ignition) combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Five steady-state operating conditions were evaluated. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable.
Technical Paper

Symbolic Time-Series Analysis of Engine Combustion Measurements

1998-02-23
980624
We present techniques of symbolic time-series analysis which are useful for analyzing temporal patterns in dynamic measurements of engine combustion variables. We focus primarily on techniques that characterize predictability and the occurrence of repeating temporal patterns. These methods can be applied to standard, cycle-resolved engine combustion measurements, such as IMEP and heat release. The techniques are especially useful in cases with high levels of measurement and/or dynamic noise. We illustrate their application to experimental data from a production V8 engine and a laboratory single-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

Steel Processing Effects on Impact Deformation of UltraLight Steel Auto Body

2001-03-05
2001-01-1056
The objective of the research presented in this paper was to assess the influence of stamping process on crash response of UltraLight Steel Auto Body (ULSAB) [1] vehicle. Considered forming effects included thickness variations and plastic strain hardening imparted in the part forming process. The as-formed thickness and plastic strain for front crash parts were used as input data for vehicle crash analysis. Differences in structural performance between crash models with and without forming data were analyzed in order to determine the effects and feasibility of integration of forming processes and crash models.
Technical Paper

Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2501
This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NOx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NOx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%).
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Low Engine-Out NOx and Particulate Matter with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0262
This paper describes the simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in a modern light-duty diesel engine under high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM emissions was observed under lean conditions at several low to moderate load conditions using two different approaches. The first approach utilizes a throttle to increase EGR rate beyond the maximum rate possible with sole use of the EGR valve for a particular engine condition. The second approach does not use a throttle, but rather uses a combination of EGR and manipulation of injection parameters. A significant reduction in particulate matter size and concentration was observed corresponding to the reduction in particulate mass. This PM reduction was accompanied by a significant shift in the heat release profile. In addition, there were significant cylinder-to-cylinder variations in particulate matter characteristics, gaseous emissions, and heat release.
Journal Article

Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

2014-04-01
2014-01-1562
We present simulated fuel economy and emissions of city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions are affected by complex interactions between engine load and the transient catalyst temperatures, and the emissions results were found to depend significantly on motor size and details of each drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Catalytic Oxidation and Selective Catalytic NOx Reduction in Lean-Exhaust Hybrid Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1304
We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel-powered hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles (HEVs and PHEVs). The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of commercially available Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust.
Journal Article

Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

2013-04-08
2013-01-1033
We compare the simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional heavy duty (HD) truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential benefit for HD hybrid vehicles during highway driving.
Technical Paper

Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst in Lean Gasoline Engine Exhaust

2015-04-14
2015-01-1008
Ethanol is a very effective reductant for nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environments. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the U.S., lean gasoline engines equipped with Ag/Al2O3 catalysts have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for evaluation of catalyst performance.
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