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Technical Paper

1D Model of a Copper Exchanged Small Pore Zeolite Catalyst Based on Transient SCR Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1578
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NOx emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NOx reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NOx ratios.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Assessment of Alternative Powertrains and Body-in-White Materials for Advanced Technology Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0573
The affordability of today's and future advanced technology vehicles (i.e., diesel, hybrid, and fuel cell) developed for improved fuel economy remains a concern with respect to final consumer acceptance. The automotive system cost model (ASCM) developed for the production cost estimates at a level of five major subsystems and 35+ components, has been used here to address the affordability issue of advanced technology vehicles. Scenarios encompassing five alternative powertrain and three body options for a mid-size vehicle under two different timeframes (i.e., 2002 and 2010) were considered to determine the cost-effectiveness of among the competing technology options within the same timeframe and between the two timeframes.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Magnesium Front End Autoparts: A Revision to 2010-01-0275

2012-12-31
2012-01-2325
The Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project under the sponsorship of Canada, China, and USA aims to develop key technologies and a knowledge base for increased use of magnesium in automobiles. The primary goal of this life cycle assessment (LCA) study is to compare the energy and potential environmental impacts of advanced magnesium based front end parts of a North American-built 2007 GM-Cadillac CTS using the current steel structure as a baseline. An aluminium front end is also considered as an alternate light structure scenario. A “cradle-to-grave” LCA is conducted by including primary material production, semi-fabrication production, autoparts manufacturing and assembly, transportation, use phase, and end-of-life processing of autoparts. This LCA study was done in compliance with international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2].
Technical Paper

A Comparison of HCCI Ignition Characteristics of Gasoline Fuels Using a Single-Zone Kinetic Model with a Five Component Surrogate Fuel

2008-10-06
2008-01-2399
While gasoline surrogate development has progressed in the areas of more complex surrogate mixtures and in kinetic modeling tools and mechanism development, it is generally recognized that further development is still needed. This paper represents a small step in supporting this development by providing comparisons between experimental engine data and surrogate-based kinetic models. In our case, the HCCI engine data comes from a port-injected, single-cylinder research engine with intake-air heating for combustion phasing control. Timing sweeps were run at constant fuel rate for three market gasolines and five surrogate mixtures. Modeling was done using the CHEMKIN software with a gasoline mechanism set containing 1440 species and 6572 reactions. Five pure compounds were selected for the surrogate blends and include iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, methylcyclohexane, and 1-hexene.
Technical Paper

A Feasibility Evaluation of a Thermal Plasma Fuel Reformer for Supplemental Hydrogen Addition to Internal Combustion Engines

1999-04-26
1999-01-2239
One scenario for reducing engine out NOx in a spark ignition engine is to introduce small amounts of supplemental hydrogen to the combustion process. The supplemental hydrogen enables a gasoline engine to run lean where NOx emissions are significantly reduced and engine efficiency is increased relative to stoichiometric operation. This paper reports on a mass and energy balance model that has been developed to evaluate the overall system efficiencies of a thermal reformer-heat exchanger system capable of delivering hydrogen to the air intake of a gasoline engine. The mass and energy balance model is utilized to evaluate the conditions where energy losses associated with fuel reformation may be offset by increases in engine efficiencies.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid 2-Zone/WAVE Engine Combustion Model for Simulating Combustion Instabilities During Dilute Operation

2005-10-24
2005-01-3801
Internal combustion engines are operated under conditions of high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce NOx emissions and promote enhanced combustion modes such as HCCI. However, high EGR under certain conditions also promotes nonlinear feedback between cycles, leading to the development of combustion instabilities and cyclic variability. We employ a two-zone phenomenological combustion model to simulate the onset of combustion instabilities under highly dilute conditions and to illustrate the impact of these instabilities on emissions and fuel efficiency. The two-zone in-cylinder combustion model is coupled to a WAVE engine-simulation code through a Simulink interface, allowing rapid simulation of several hundred successive engine cycles with many external engine parametric effects included.
Journal Article

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods

2010-04-12
2010-01-1266
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple “cold” start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts.
Technical Paper

A Soft-Switched DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications*

2002-06-03
2002-01-1903
Fuel cell-powered electric vehicles (FCPEV) require an energy storage device to start up the fuel cells and to store the energy captured during regenerative braking. Low-voltage (12 V) batteries are preferred as the storage device to maintain compatibility with the majority of today's automobile loads. A dc/dc converter is therefore needed to interface the low-voltage batteries with the fuel cell-powered higher-voltage dc bus system (255 V ∼ 425 V), transferring energy in either direction as required. This paper presents a soft-switched, isolated bi-directional dc/dc converter developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FCPEV applications. The converter employs dual half-bridges interconnected with an isolation transformer to minimize the number of switching devices and their associated gate drive requirements. Snubber capacitors including the parasitic capacitance of the switching devices and the transformer leakage inductance are utilized to achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS).
Technical Paper

A Study on a Prognosis Algorithm for PEMFC Lifetime Prediction Based on Durability Tests

2010-04-12
2010-01-0852
Of the fuel cells being studied, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is viewed as the most promising for transportation. Yet until today, the commercialization of the PEMFC has not been widespread in spite of its large expectation. Poor long term performances or durability, and high production and maintenance costs account for the main reasons. For the final commercialization of fuel cell in transportation field, the durability issue must be addressed, while the costs should be further brought down. In the meantime, health-monitoring and prognosis techniques are of great significance in ensuring the normal operation of the fuel cell and preventing or predicting its likely abrupt and catastrophic failure. In this paper, an analytical formulation of a damage accumulation law for fuel cell is presented.
Technical Paper

A Thermal Conductivity Approach for Measuring Hydrogen in Engine Exhaust

2004-10-25
2004-01-2908
Thermal conductivity detection has long been used in gas chromatography to detect hydrogen and other diatomic gases in a gas sample. Thermal conductivity instruments that are not coupled to gas chromatographs are useful for detecting hydrogen in binary gas mixtures, but suffer from significant cross-interference from other gas species that are separated when the detector is used with a gas chromatograph. This study reports a method for using a commercially-available thermal conductivity instrument to detect and quantify hydrogen in a diesel exhaust stream. The instrument time response of approximately 40 seconds is sufficient for steady-state applications. Cross-interference from relevant gas species are quantified and discussed. Measurement uncertainty associated with the corrections for the various species is estimated and practical implications for use of the instrument and method are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2205
In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 45%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.
Journal Article

Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0934
Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst.
Journal Article

Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1505
A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at λ=0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the λ=0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant.
Journal Article

Analysis of Cyclic Variability of Heat Release for High-EGR GDI Engine Operation with Observations on Implications for Effective Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0270
Operation of spark-ignition (SI) engines with high levels of charge dilution through exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) achieves significant engine efficiency gains while maintaining stoichiometric operation for compatibility with three-way catalysts. Dilution levels, however, are limited by cyclic variability - including significant numbers of misfires - that becomes more pronounced with increasing dilution. This variability has been shown to have both stochastic and deterministic components. Stochastic effects include turbulence, mixing variations, and the like, while the deterministic effect is primarily due to the nonlinear dependence of flame propagation rates and ignition characteristics on the charge composition, which is influenced by the composition of residual gases from prior cycles.
Journal Article

Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effects on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

2015-09-06
2015-24-2451
A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate.
Journal Article

Analytical Examination of the Relationship between Fuel Properties, Engine Efficiency, and R Factor Values

2019-04-02
2019-01-0309
The variability in gasoline energy content, though most frequently not a consumer concern, is an issue of concern for vehicle manufacturers in demonstrating compliance with regulatory requirements. Advancements in both vehicle technology, test methodology, and fuel formulations have increased the level of visibility and concern with regard to the energy content of fuels used for regulatory testing. The R factor was introduced into fuel economy calculations for vehicle certification in the late 1980s as a means of addressing batch-to-batch variations in the heating value of certification fuels and the resulting variations in fuel economy results. Although previous studies have investigated values of the R factor for modern vehicles through experimentation, subsequent engine studies have made clear that it is difficult to distinguish between the confounding factors that influence engine efficiency when R is being studied experimentally.
Technical Paper

Application of High Performance Computing for Simulating Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Combustion Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0798
Interest in operational cost reduction is driving engine manufacturers to consider low-cost fuel substitution in heavy-duty diesel engines. These dual-fuel (DF) engines could be operated either in diesel-only mode or operated with premixed natural gas (NG) ignited by a pilot flame of compression-ignited direct-injected diesel fuel. Under certain conditions, dual-fuel operation can result in increased cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) during combustion. CFD can greatly help in understanding and identifying critical parameters influencing CCV. Innovative modelling techniques and large computing resources are needed to investigate the factors affecting CCV in dual-fuel engines. This paper discusses the use of the High Performance Computing resource Titan, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to investigate CCV of a dual-fuel engine.
Journal Article

Application of a Tractive Energy Analysis to Quantify the Benefits of Advanced Efficiency Technologies for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks Using Characteristic Drive Cycle Data

2012-04-16
2012-01-0361
Accurately predicting the fuel savings that can be achieved with the implementation of various technologies developed for fuel efficiency can be very challenging, particularly when considering combinations of technologies. Differences in the usage of highway vehicles can strongly influence the benefits realized with any given technology, which makes generalizations about fuel savings inappropriate for different vehicle applications. A model has been developed to estimate the potential for reducing fuel consumption when advanced efficiency technologies, or combinations of these technologies, are employed on highway vehicles, particularly medium- and heavy-duty trucks. The approach is based on a tractive energy analysis applied to drive cycles representative of the vehicle usage, and the analysis specifically accounts for individual energy loss factors that characterize the technologies of interest.
Technical Paper

Assessing Grid Impact of Battery Electric Vehicle Charging Demand Using GPS-Based Longitudinal Travel Survey Data

2014-04-01
2014-01-0343
This paper utilizes GPS tracked multiday travel activities to estimate the temporal distribution of electricity loads and assess battery electric vehicle (BEV) grid impacts at a significant market penetration level. The BEV load and non-PEV load vary by time of the day and day of the week. We consider two charging preferences: home priority assumes BEV drivers prefer charging at home and would not charge at public charging stations unless the state of charge (SOC) of the battery is not sufficient to cover the way back to home; and charging priority does not require drivers to defer charging to home and assumes drivers will utilize the first available charging opportunity. Both home and charging priority scenarios show an evening peak demand. Charging priority scenario also shows a morning peak on weekdays, possibly due to workplace charging.
Technical Paper

Assessing Reductant Chemistry During In-Cylinder Regeneration of Diesel Lean NOx Traps

2004-10-25
2004-01-3023
Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts are capable of reducing NOx in lean exhaust from diesel engines. NOx is stored on the catalyst during lean operation; then, under rich exhaust conditions, the NOx is released from and reduced by the catalyst. The process of NOx release and reduction is called regeneration. One method of obtaining the rich conditions for regeneration is to inject additional fuel into the engine cylinders while throttling the engine intake air flow to effectively run the engine at rich air:fuel ratios; this method is called “in-cylinder” regeneration. In-cylinder regeneration of LNT catalysts has been demonstrated and is a candidate emission control technique for commercialization of light-duty diesel vehicles to meet future emission regulations. In the study presented here, a 1.7-liter diesel engine with a LNT catalyst system was used to evaluate in-cylinder regeneration techniques.
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