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Journal Article

Removal of EGR Cooler Deposit Material by Flow-Induced Shear

2013-04-08
2013-01-1292
A number of studies have identified a tendency for exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers to foul to a steady-state level and subsequently not degrade further. One possible explanation for this behavior is that the shear force imposed by the gas velocity increases as the deposit thickens. If the shear force reaches a critical level, it achieves a removal of the deposit material that can balance the rate of deposition of new material, creating a stabilized condition. This study reports efforts to observe removal of deposit material in-situ during fouling studies as well as an ex-situ removal through the use of controlled air flows. The critical gas velocity and shear stress necessary to cause removal of deposit material is identified and reported. In-situ observations failed to show convincing evidence of a removal of deposit material. The results show that removal of deposit material requires a relatively high velocity of 40 m/s or higher to cause removal.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Printed Bimetallic (Stainless Steel and Bronze) Engine Head Operating Under Stoichiometric and Lean Spark Ignited (SI) Combustion of Natural Gas

2020-04-14
2020-01-0770
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the durability and operational performance of a bimetallic (stainless steel and bronze) natural gas engine head. The performance was evaluated against a stock cast iron head for comparison. During manufacturing of the printed head, efforts were made to ensure that the internal features, including the fire deck geometry for the two head were identical. The engine was operated under two engine speeds (1200 rpm and 1800 rpm) and two Brake Mean Effective Pressures (6 bar and 10 bar). For each speed and BMEP combination, two equivalence ratios (0.7 and 1.0) were evaluated. In addition to emissions and engine performance data, the research team also took thermal images of both operating heads to ascertain heat transfer and thermal loss differences between the two head materials. The results showed that the brake efficiency, coolant and exhaust temperature were the same for both heads.
Journal Article

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

2014-04-01
2014-01-1606
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel.
Journal Article

High Load Expansion of Catalytic EGR-Loop Reforming under Stoichiometric Conditions for Increased Efficiency in Spark Ignition Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0244
The use of fuel reformate from catalytic processes is known to have beneficial effects on the spark-ignited (SI) combustion process through enhanced dilution tolerance and decreased combustion duration, but in many cases reformate generation can incur a significant fuel penalty. In a previous investigation, the researchers showed that, by controlling the boundary conditions of the reforming catalyst, it was possible to minimize the thermodynamic expense of the reforming process, and in some cases, realize thermochemical recuperation (TCR), a form of waste heat recovery where exhaust heat is converted to usable chemical energy. The previous work, however, focused on a relatively light-load engine operating condition of 2000 rpm, 4 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The present investigation demonstrates that this operating strategy is applicable to higher engine loads, including boosted operation up to 10 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Lubricant Interactions on the Propensity for Stochastic Pre-Ignition

2019-09-09
2019-24-0103
This work explores the impact of the interaction of lubricant and fuel properties on the propensity for stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on statistically significant changes in SPI tendency and magnitude, as determined by measurements of cylinder pressure. Specifically, lubricant detergents, lubricant volatility, fuel volatility, fuel chemical composition, fuel-wall impingement, and engine load were varied to study the physical and chemical effects of fuel-lubricant interactions on SPI tendency. The work illustrates that at low loads, with fuels susceptible to SPI events, lubricant detergent package effects on SPI were non-significant. However, with changes to fuel distillation, fuel-wall impingement, and most importantly engine load, lubricant detergent effects could be observed even at reduced loads This suggests that there is a thermal effect associated with the higher load operation.
Journal Article

Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

2010-10-25
2010-01-2129
Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization.
Journal Article

Engine Operating Conditions and Fuel Properties on Pre-Spark Heat Release and SPI Promotion in SI Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0688
This work explores the dependence of fuel ignition delay on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on bulk gas thermodynamic state, where the effects of kinetically controlled bulk gas pre-spark heat release (PSHR) are correlated to SPI tendency and magnitude. Specifically, residual gas and low temperature PSHR chemistry effects and observations are explored, which are found to be indicative of bulk gas conditions required for strong SPI events. Analyzed events range from non-knocking SPI to knocking SPI and even detonation SPI events in excess of 325 bar peak cylinder pressure. The work illustrates that singular SPI event count and magnitude are found to be proportional to PSHR of the bulk gas mixture and residual gas fraction. Cycle-to-cycle variability in trapped residual mass and temperature are found to impose variability in singular SPI event count and magnitude.
Journal Article

Effects of Oil Formulation, Oil Separator, and Engine Speed and Load on the Particle Size, Chemistry, and Morphology of Diesel Crankcase Aerosols

2016-04-05
2016-01-0897
The recirculation of gases from the crankcase and valvetrain can potentially lead to the entrainment of lubricant in the form of aerosols or mists. As boost pressures increase, the blow-by flow through both the crankcase and the valve cover increases. The resulting lubricant can then become part of the intake charge, potentially leading to fouling of intake components such as the intercooler and the turbocharger. The entrained aerosol which can contain the lubricant and soot may or may not have the same composition as the bulk lubricant. The complex aerodynamic processes that lead to entrainment can strip out heavy components or volatilize light components. Similarly, the physical size and numbers of aerosol particles can be dependent upon the lubricant formulation and engine speed and load. For instance, high rpm and load may increase not only the flow of gases but the amount of lubricant aerosol.
Journal Article

Carbonyl Formation during High Efficiency Clean Combustion of FACE Fuels

2010-10-25
2010-01-2212
The low temperature conditions that occur during high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) often lead to the formation of partially oxidized HC species such as aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. Using the diesel fuels specified by the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) working group, carbonyl species were collected from the exhaust of a light duty diesel engine operating under HECC conditions. High pressure liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to speciate carbonyls as large as C 9 . A relationship between carbonyl species formed in the exhaust and fuel composition and properties was determined. Data were collected at the optimum fuel efficiency point for a typical road load condition. Results of the carbonyl analysis showed changes in formaldehyde and acetaldehyde formation, formation of higher molecular weight carbonyls and the formation of aromatic carbonyls.
Journal Article

Analysis of Cyclic Variability of Heat Release for High-EGR GDI Engine Operation with Observations on Implications for Effective Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0270
Operation of spark-ignition (SI) engines with high levels of charge dilution through exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) achieves significant engine efficiency gains while maintaining stoichiometric operation for compatibility with three-way catalysts. Dilution levels, however, are limited by cyclic variability - including significant numbers of misfires - that becomes more pronounced with increasing dilution. This variability has been shown to have both stochastic and deterministic components. Stochastic effects include turbulence, mixing variations, and the like, while the deterministic effect is primarily due to the nonlinear dependence of flame propagation rates and ignition characteristics on the charge composition, which is influenced by the composition of residual gases from prior cycles.
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