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Technical Paper

Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles

As Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (EVs and HEVs) become more prevalent, there is a need to change the power source from gasoline on the vehicle to electricity from the grid in order to mitigate requirements for onboard energy storage (battery weight) as well as to reduce dependency on oil by increasing dependency on the grid (our coal, gas, and renewable energy instead of their oil). Traditional systems for trains and buses rely on physical contact to transfer electrical energy to vehicles in motion. Until recently, conventional magnetically coupled systems required a gap of less than a centimeter. This is not practical for vehicles of the future.
Technical Paper

Wind Noise Spectral Predictions Using a Lattice-Based Method

The current ability of the Virtual Aerodynamic/ Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to predict interior vehicle sound pressure levels is demonstrated using an automobile model which has variable windshield angles. This prediction method uses time-averaged flow solutions from a lattice gas CFD code coupled with wave number-frequency spectra for the various flow regimes to calculate the side window vibration from which the sound pressure level spectrum at the driver's ear is determined. These predictions are compared to experimental wind tunnel data. The results demonstrate the ability of this methodology to correctly predict wind noise spectral trends as well as the overall loudness at the driver's ear. A more sophisticated simulation method employing the same lattice gas code is investigated for prediction of the time-accurate flow field necessary to compute the actual side glass pressure spectra.
Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

Wear Protection Properties of Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Lubricants

A laboratory wear test is used to evaluate the wear protection properties of new and used engine oils formulated for FFV service. Laboratory-blended mixtures of these oils with methanol and water have also been tested. The test consists of a steel ball rotating against three polished cast iron discs. Oil samples are obtained at periodic intervals from a fleet of 3.0L Taurus vehicles operating under controlled go-stop conditions. To account for the effects of fuel dilution, some oils are tested before and after a stripping procedure to eliminate gasoline, methanol and other volatile components. In addition to TAN and TBN measurements, a capillary electrophoresis technique is used to evaluate the formate content in the oils. The results suggest that wear properties of used FFV lubricants change significantly with their degree of usage.
Technical Paper

Viscosity Prediction for Multigrade Oils

The variation of viscosity with temperature and shear rate plays an important role in the analysis of lubrication of automotive systems. In this paper, a method for predicting the viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids, such as multigrade engine oils, over a wide range of temperatures and shear rates is outlined. This expression determines viscosity parameters for shear thinning fluids in terms of easily measured viscosity values at some reference state. A comparison of predictions with experimental data suggests that viscosity for multigrade engine oils can be predicted to within experimental uncertainty. The proposed method can be used in assessing lubricant viscosity at shear rates greater than 106 s-1, which are beyond the capability of current laboratory instruments. A comparative study with multigrade oils shows that performance at very high shear rates cannot be accurately gauged from high temperature, high shear (HTHS) viscosity measurements.
Technical Paper

Virtual Engine Dynamometer in Service Life Testing of Transmissions: A Comparison Between Real Engine and Electric Dynamometers as Prime Movers in Validation Test Rigs

A test cell was developed for evaluating a 6-speed automatic transmission. The target vehicle had an internal combustion 5.4L gasoline V8 engine. An electric dynamometer was used to closely simulate the engine characteristics. This included generating mean torque from the ECU engine map, with a transient capability of 10,000 rpm/second. Engine inertia was simulated with a transient capability of 20,000 rpm/second, and torque pulsation was simulated individually for each piston, with a transient capability of 50,000 rpm/second. Quantitative results are presented for the correlation between the engine driven and the dynamometer driven transmission performance over more than 60 test cycles. Concerns about using the virtual engine in validation testing are discussed, and related to the high frequency transient performance required from the electric dynamometer. Qualitative differences between the fueled engine and electric driven testing are presented.
Technical Paper

Vibrational Sensor Based on Fluid Damping Mechanisms

A piezoelectrically driven vibrating cantilever blade is damped by a number of mechanisms including viscous damping in a still fluid and aerodynamic damping in a flow. By measuring the damping of devices operating at resonance in the 1 to 5 kHz region, one can measure such properties as mass flow, absolute pressure or the product of molecualar mass and viscosity. In the case of the mass flow measurement, the device offers a mechanical alternative to hotwire and hot film devices for the automotive application.
Technical Paper

Vehicle System Control for Start-Stop Powertrains with Automatic Transmissions

The 2013 Ford Fusion will be launched with an optional automatic engine start-stop feature. To realize engine start-stop on a vehicle equipped with a conventional powertrain, there are two major challenges in the vehicle system controls. First, the propulsive torque delivery from a stopped engine has to be fast. The vehicle launch delay has to be minimized such that the corporate vehicle attributes can be met. Second, the fuel economy improvement offered by this technology has to justify the cost associated with it. In pursuing fuel economy, the driver's comfort and convenience should be minimally impacted. To tackle these challenges, a vehicle system control strategy has been developed to accurately interpret the driver's intent, monitor the vehicle subsystem's power demands, schedule engine automatic stop and re-start, and coordinate the fast and smooth torque delivery to the wheels.
Journal Article

Vehicle Efficiency and Tractive Work: Rate of Change for the Past Decade and Accelerated Progress Required for U.S. Fuel Economy and CO2 Regulations

A major driving force for change in light-duty vehicle design and technology is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) joint final rules concerning Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for model years 2017 (MY17) through 2025 (MY25) passenger cars and light trucks. The chief goal of this current study is to compare the already rapid pace of fuel economy improvement and technological change over the previous decade to the required rate of change to meet regulations over the next decade. EPA and NHTSA comparisons of the model year 2005 (MY05) US light-duty vehicle fleet to the model year 2015 (MY15) fleet shows improved fuel economy (FE) of approximately 26% using the same FE estimating method mandated for CAFE regulations. Future predictions by EPA and NHTSA concerning ensemble fleet fuel economy are examined as an indicator of required vehicle rate-of-change.
Technical Paper

Variable Displacement by Engine Valve Control

Intake and exhaust valve control has been combined with engine calibration control by an on-board computer to achieve a Variable Displacement Engine with improved BSFC during part throttle operation. The advent of the on-board computer, with its ability to provide integrated algorithms for the fast accurate flexible control of the entire powertrain, has allowed practical application of the valve disabler mechanism. The engine calibration basis and the displacement selection criteria are discussed, as are the fuel economy, emissions and behavior of a research vehicle on selected drive cycles ( Metro, Highway and Steady State ). Additionally, the impact upon vehicle driveability and other related subsystems ( e.g., transmission ) is addressed.
Technical Paper

Variability in Hydrocarbon Speciation Measurements at Low Emission (ULEV) Levels

As vehicle tailpipe emission levels decrease with improvements in emission control technology and reformulation of gasolines, exhaust hydrocarbon levels begin to approach the levels in ambient air. Hydrocarbon speciation at these low levels requires high sensitivity capillary gas chromatography methods. In this study, a mixture of “synthetic” exhaust was prepared at two concentration levels (approximately 5 ppm C and 10 ppm C), and was analyzed by the widely-used Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) Phase II (gas chromatography) speciation method with a sensitivity of 0.005 ppm C for individual species. The mixture at each concentration level, along with a sample of ambient air, was analyzed a total of 20 times on 10 separate days over a 2½ week period. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons (HCs) and individual species (using the AQIRP library) were measured; averages and standard deviations were calculated.
Technical Paper

Vapor Pressure Equations for Characterizing Automotive Fuel Behavior Under Hot Fuel Handling Conditions

A simple set of equations has been developed to characterize automotive fuel behavior in fuel tanks, fuel vapor systems and fuel rails, particularly under hot weather conditions. The system of equations links the vapor pressure P, the temperature T, and the mass fraction evaporated Z. Parameters are determined empirically from laboratory vapor pressure and distillation tests. With appropriate values for heat capacity, heat of vaporization, and vapor composition, the equations can be used to estimate upper flammability limits, fuel weathering under hot fuel handling conditions, pressure rise in tanks, and evaporative vapor generation. The equations were developed as part of a larger fuel vapor system model.
Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Technical Paper

Vacuum EGR Valve Actuator Model

As part of a general EGR system model, an adiabatic thermodynamic vacuum EGR valve actuator model was developed and validated. The long term goal of the work is improved system operation by correctly specifying and allocating EGR system component requirements.
Technical Paper

V/L Effect on Vapor Pressure Measurement of Full Boiling Range Fuels Using the Two-Part Injection Method

The internally programmed two-injection method for determining the dissolved air correction in the CCA-VP laboratory vapor pressure instrument (Grabner Instruments), while adequate for pure, single component liquids, can be in error for full boiling range automotive fuels. For these fuels, errors of up to 10 kPa (1.5 psi) in vapor pressure at 38°C (100°F) can occur due to the increase in vapor pressure between the first and second injection caused by decreasing vapor liquid ratio (V/L); this increase is interpreted by the instrument as additional dissolved air and results in overcorrection for this effect. A method is demonstrated for removing the V/L effect using two TV/L values for the subject fuel, either calculated or measured independently. The true air correction determined in this way is similar to values obtained for single component fuels and to values calculated directly from air solubility data.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Thermodynamics of Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Combustion Systems: An Analytical and Experimental Investigation

Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines have been investigated for many years but only recently have shown promise as a next generation gasoline engine technology. Much of this new enthusiasm is due to advances in the fuel injection system, which is now capable of producing a well-controlled spray with small droplets. A physical understanding of new combustion systems utilizing this technology is just beginning to occur. This analytical and experimental investigation with a research single-cylinder combustion system shows the benefits of in-cylinder gasoline injection versus injection of fuel into the intake port. Charge cooling with direct injection is shown to improve volumetric efficiency and reduce the mixture temperature at the time of ignition allowing operation with a higher compression ratio which improves the thermodynamic cycle efficiency.
Technical Paper

ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has emerged as an important issue in diesel engine development. Uncertainty about the level of impact that fuel chemistry may have upon this issue has resulted in a need to investigate the cooler fouling process with emerging non-traditional fuel sources to gage their impact on the process. This study reports experiments using both ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel (B20) at elevated exhaust hydrocarbon conditions to investigate the EGR cooler fouling process. The results show that there is little difference between the degradation in cooler effectiveness for ULSD and B20 at identical conditions. At lower coolant temperatures, B20 exhibits elevated organic fractions in the deposits compared with ULSD, but this does not appear to lead to incremental performance degradation under the conditions studied.
Technical Paper

Two Alternative, Dielectric-Effect, Flexible-Fuel Sensors

This paper describes two types of dielectric-effect sensors that may be used as alternatives to a dielectric-effect sensor using a single capacitor. In the first type, three capacitors are mounted in a compact module inserted into a vehicle fuel line. The three capacitors are connected together to form an electrical pi-filter network. This approach provides a large variation of output signal as the fuel changes from gasoline to methanol. The sensor can be designed to operate in the 1 to 20 MHz frequency range. The second type of sensor investigated uses a resonant-cavity structure. Ordinarily, sensors based on resonant cavities are useful only if the operating frequency is several hundred MHz or higher. The high relative dielectric constant of methanol allows useful sensors to be built using relatively short lengths of metal tubing for the cavities. For example, a sensor built using a fuel rail only 38.7 cm long operated in a frequency range from 31 to 52 MHz.
Technical Paper

Treatment of Natural Gas Vehicle Exhaust

The objective of this study is to investigate the removal of methane (CH4), nitric oxide (NO), and carbon monoxide (CO) from simulated natural gas vehicle (NGV) exhaust over a palladium catalyst. The effects of changes in space velocity and natural gas sulfur (S) content were studied. The study suggests that the NGV has to be operated slightly rich of stoichiometry to achieve simultaneous removal of the three constituents. The CH4 conversion decreases with an increase in the space velocity. The CO and NO conversions remain unaffected over the space velocity range (10,000 hr-1 to 100,000 hr-1) investigated. The presence of sulfur dioxide in the exhaust lowers the CH4 conversion and increases the CO conversion in the rich region. The NO conversion remains unaffected. Studies were conducted over model catalysts to investigate the modes of CH4 removal from the simulated NGV exhaust.
Technical Paper

Transient Heat Transfer of 42V Ni-MH Batteries for an HEV Application

While a Ni-MH battery has good performance properties, such as a high power density and no memory effect, it needs a powerful thermal management system to maintain within the required narrow thermal operating range for the 42V HEV applications. Inappropriate battery temperatures result in degradation of the battery performance and life. For the battery cooling system, air is blown into the battery pack. The exhaust is then vented outside due to potential safety issues with battery emissions. This cooling strategy can significantly impact fuel economy and cabin climate control. This is particularly true when the battery is experiencing frequent charge and discharge of high-depths in extreme hot or cold weather conditions. To optimize performance and life of HEV traction batteries, the battery cooling design must keep the battery operation temperature below a maximum value and uniform across the battery cells.