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Technical Paper

“Just-in-Time” Battery Charge Depletion Control for PHEVs and E-REVs for Maximum Battery Life

2009-04-20
2009-01-1384
Conventional methods of vehicle operation for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles first discharge the battery to a minimum State of Charge (SOC) before switching to charge sustaining operation. This is very demanding on the battery, maximizing the number of trips ending with a depleted battery and maximizing the distance driven on a depleted battery over the vehicle's life. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the number of trips ending with a deeply discharged battery and also eliminate the need for extended driving on a depleted battery. An optimum SOC can be maintained for long battery life before discharging the battery so that the vehicle reaches an electric plug-in destination just as the battery reaches the minimum operating SOC. These “Just-in-Time” methods provide maximum effective battery life while getting virtually the same electricity from the grid.
Technical Paper

Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0354
As Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (EVs and HEVs) become more prevalent, there is a need to change the power source from gasoline on the vehicle to electricity from the grid in order to mitigate requirements for onboard energy storage (battery weight) as well as to reduce dependency on oil by increasing dependency on the grid (our coal, gas, and renewable energy instead of their oil). Traditional systems for trains and buses rely on physical contact to transfer electrical energy to vehicles in motion. Until recently, conventional magnetically coupled systems required a gap of less than a centimeter. This is not practical for vehicles of the future.
Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Journal Article

Vehicle Efficiency and Tractive Work: Rate of Change for the Past Decade and Accelerated Progress Required for U.S. Fuel Economy and CO2 Regulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0909
A major driving force for change in light-duty vehicle design and technology is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) joint final rules concerning Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for model years 2017 (MY17) through 2025 (MY25) passenger cars and light trucks. The chief goal of this current study is to compare the already rapid pace of fuel economy improvement and technological change over the previous decade to the required rate of change to meet regulations over the next decade. EPA and NHTSA comparisons of the model year 2005 (MY05) US light-duty vehicle fleet to the model year 2015 (MY15) fleet shows improved fuel economy (FE) of approximately 26% using the same FE estimating method mandated for CAFE regulations. Future predictions by EPA and NHTSA concerning ensemble fleet fuel economy are examined as an indicator of required vehicle rate-of-change.
Technical Paper

Using Diesel Aftertreatment Models to Guide System Design for Tier II Emission Standards

2002-06-03
2002-01-1868
Ford Motor Company is participating in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to explore the development of innovative emission control systems for advanced compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) transportation engines. CIDI (or diesel) engines have the advantages of a potential 40% fuel economy improvement and 20% less CO2 emissions than current gasoline counterparts. To support this goal, Ford plans to demonstrate an exhaust emission control system that provides high efficiency particulate matter (PM) and NOx reduction. Very low sulfur diesel fuel will be used to enable low PM emissions, reduce the fuel economy penalty associated with the emission control system, and increase the long-term durability of the system. The end result will allow vehicles with CIDI engines to be Tier II emissions certified at a minimum cost to the consumer.
Technical Paper

ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2802
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has emerged as an important issue in diesel engine development. Uncertainty about the level of impact that fuel chemistry may have upon this issue has resulted in a need to investigate the cooler fouling process with emerging non-traditional fuel sources to gage their impact on the process. This study reports experiments using both ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel (B20) at elevated exhaust hydrocarbon conditions to investigate the EGR cooler fouling process. The results show that there is little difference between the degradation in cooler effectiveness for ULSD and B20 at identical conditions. At lower coolant temperatures, B20 exhibits elevated organic fractions in the deposits compared with ULSD, but this does not appear to lead to incremental performance degradation under the conditions studied.
Technical Paper

The Use of Small Engines as Surrogates for Research in Aftertreatment, Combustion, and Fuels

2006-11-13
2006-32-0035
In this research, small, single cylinder engines have been used to simulate larger engines in the areas of aftertreatment, combustion, and fuel formulation effects. The use of small engines reduces overall research cost and allows more rapid experiments to be run. Because component costs are lower, it is also possible to investigate more variations and to sacrifice components for materials characterization and for subsequent experiments. Using small engines in this way is very successful in some cases. In other cases, limitations of the engines influence the results and need to be accounted for in the experimental design and data analysis. Some of the results achieved or limitations found may be of interest to the small engine market, and this paper is offered as a summary of the authors' research in these areas. Research is being conducted in two areas. First, small engines are being used to study the rapid aging and poisoning of exhaust aftertreatment catalysts.
Technical Paper

The Use of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations to Evaluate the Robustness of Variable Compression Ratio as a Control Method for Gasoline HCCI

2007-04-16
2007-01-0224
On a gasoline engine platform, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds the promise of improved fuel economy and greatly reduced engine-out NOx emissions, without an increase in particulate matter emissions. In this investigation, a variable compression ratio (CR) engine equipped with a throttle and intake air heating was used to test the robustness of these control parameters to accommodate a series of fuels blended from reference gasoline, straight run refinery naphtha, and ethanol. Higher compression ratios allowed for operation with higher octane fuels, but operation could not be achieved with the reference gasoline, even at the highest compression ratio. Compression ratio and intake heat could be used separately or together to modulate combustion. A lambda of 2 provided optimum fuel efficiency, even though some throttling was necessary to achieve this condition. Ethanol did not appear to assist combustion, although only two ethanol-containing fuels were evaluated.
Technical Paper

The Roles of Phosphorus and Soot on the Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0628
The deactivation of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) by soot contamination and lube-oil derived phosphorus poisoning is investigated. Pt/CeO2/γ-AI2O3 DOCs aged using three different protocols developed by the authors and six high mileage field-returned DOCs of similar formulation are evaluated for THC and CO oxidation performance using a bench-flow reactor. Collectively, these catalysts exhibit a variety of phosphorus and soot morphologies contributing to performance deactivation.
Technical Paper

The Relationships of Diesel Fuel Properties, Chemistry, and HCCI Engine Performance as Determined by Principal Components Analysis

2007-10-29
2007-01-4059
In order to meet common fuel specifications such as cetane number and volatility, a refinery must blend a number of refinery stocks derived from various process units in the refinery. Fuel chemistry can be significantly altered in meeting fuel specifications. Additionally, fuel specifications are seldom changed in isolation, and the drive to meet one specification may alter other specifications. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines depend on the kinetic behavior of a fuel to achieve reliable ignition and are expected to be more dependent on fuel specifications and chemistry than today's conventional engines. Regression analysis can help in determining the underlying relationships between fuel specifications, chemistry, and engine performance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used as an adjunct to regression analysis in this work, because of its ability to deal with co-linear variables and potential to uncover ‘hidden’ relationships between the variables.
Journal Article

The Reduced Effectiveness of EGR to Mitigate Knock at High Loads in Boosted SI Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0061
Numerous studies have demonstrated that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can attenuate knock propensity in spark ignition (SI) engines at naturally aspirated or lightly boosted conditions [1]. In this study, we investigate the role of cooled EGR under higher load conditions with multiple fuel compositions, where highly retarded combustion phasing typical of modern SI engines was used. It was found that under these conditions, EGR attenuation of knock is greatly reduced, where EGR doesn’t allow significant combustion phasing advance as it does under lighter load conditions. Detailed combustion analysis shows that when EGR is added, the polytropic coefficient increases causing the compressive pressure and temperature to increase. At sufficiently highly boosted conditions, the increase in polytropic coefficient and additional trapped mass from EGR can sufficiently reduce fuel ignition delay to overcome knock attenuation effects.
Journal Article

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on the Knock Limit of “E85”

2013-04-08
2013-01-0888
Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called “E85,” underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane “E85” fuel.
Technical Paper

The Exhaust Emissions of Prototype Ultra-Low Sulfur and Oxygenated Diesel Fuels

2005-10-24
2005-01-3880
A 1.3-L direct injection diesel engine was used in steady-state testing to determine the emissions performance of a matrix of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels encompassing two types of sulfur removal and the use of fuel oxygenates. As expected, exhaust gas recirculation was the most effective technique for NOx reduction. With regard to fuel effects, an oxygenated diesel fuel produced with a conventional sulfur removal process reduced particulate emissions substantially, and these particulate reductions could be converted into NOx reductions by using higher levels of exhaust gas recirculation. On a simulated FTP, this oxygenated fuel simultaneously decreased NOx emissions by 30% and total particulate emissions by 50% compared to a baseline fuel.
Technical Paper

The Emissions Performance of Oxygenated Diesel Fuels in a Prototype DI Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0650
As part of a cooperative development program, six diesel fuels (a reference and five blends containing oxygenates) were evaluated under four steady-state conditions using a prototype 1.26-L 3-cylinder four-valve common-rail DI diesel engine. All of the fuels contained low sulfur (mostly < 5 ppm by mass), and they were chosen to determine the impacts of oxygenate volatility, concentration, and chemical type (paraffinic or aromatic) on exhaust emissions - with particular emphasis on particulate emissions. In addition to HC, CO, NOx and PM emissions measurements, emissions of the volatile portion of the PM and particle size were determined. Relative to the very low sulfur reference fuel, the oxygenated fuels reduced PM and NOx under some operating conditions, but produced little effect on either HC or CO emissions. Aliphatic oxygenates at 6 wt. percent oxygen in the reference fuel reduced simulated FTP PM emissions by 15 - 27 %.
Technical Paper

The Electric Drive Advanced Battery (EDAB) Project: Development and Utilization of an On-Road Energy Storage System Testbed

2013-04-08
2013-01-1533
As energy storage system (ESS) technology advances, vehicle testing in both laboratory and on-road settings is needed to characterize the performance of state-of-the-art technology and also identify areas for future improvement. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), through its support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), is collaborating with ECOtality North America and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct on-road testing of advanced ESSs for the Electric Drive Advanced Battery (EDAB) project. The project objective is to test a variety of advanced ESSs that are close to commercialization in a controlled environment that simulates usage within the intended application with the variability of on-road driving to quantify the ESS capabilities, limitations, and performance fade over cycling of the ESS.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal Efficiency in an HCCI Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4076
The effects of variable compression ratio (CR) and fuel composition on thermal efficiency were investigated in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using blends of n-heptane and toluene with research octane numbers (RON) of 0 to 90. Experiments were conducted by performing CR sweeps at multiple intake temperatures using both unthrottled operation, and constant Φ conditions by throttling to compensate for varying air density. It was found that CR is effective at changing and controlling the HCCI combustion phasing midpoint, denoted here as CA 50. Thermal efficiency was a strong function of CA 50, with overly advanced CA 50 leading to efficiency decreases. Increases in CR at a constant CA 50 for a given fuel composition did, in most cases, increase efficiency, but the relationship was weaker than the dependence of efficiency on CA 50.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Training on Whole-Body Seated Vertical Vibration Threshold Detection Testing Using the Levitt Algorithm

2003-05-05
2003-01-1510
Seated vertical vibration thresholds were tested using an adaptive Levitt algorithm. All such testing raises issues concerning potential shifting of thresholds during testing as subjects improve at the task. Additional testing was done at 4 and 16 Hz to quantify the adequacy of training within the algorithm. A 3-down 1-up algorithm starting at 8 mG descended in 3 dB steps until the first error, then switched to 1 dB steps and continued for 9 more reversals, with the last 6 averaged for threshold. Stimuli were paired with intervals containing no vibration in random order. Subjects closed their eyes and were presented with sounds in earphones to indicate the stimulus intervals, and chose the interval they thought contained the stimulus. A combination of eyes closed for concentration, gradual approach to the threshold, 4 reversals before data was used, and feedback on each trial provided built-in training to avoid threshold shift.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Sulphur-Free Diesel Fuel on the Measurement of the Number and Size Distribution of Particles Emitted from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with a Catalysed Particulate Filter

2003-10-27
2003-01-3167
Following concern about the association between adverse health effects and ambient particulate concentrations, there are now an increasing number of heavy-duty Diesel engines fitted with catalysed particulate filters. These filters virtually eliminate carbon particle emissions but there is some evidence suggesting a potential to form a cloud of secondary nucleation particles post trap. This event occurs at high temperature operating conditions and is produced mainly from the increased sulphate production over the catalyst. This paper investigates the measurement of particle emissions from a heavy-duty engine operating over the European legislated cycle, both with and without a filter fitted and investigates how emissions are affected by the use of a sulphur-free Diesel fuel. The work also demonstrates a contribution to the measured nucleation particles from material desorbed not only from the trap, but also from the exhaust system.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Engine-out Emissions and Fuel Efficiency at Mid-Load Conditions

2009-11-02
2009-01-2697
The influence of various diesel fuel properties on the steady state emissions and performance of a Cummins light-duty (ISB) engine modified for single cylinder operation has been studied at the mid-load “cruise” operating condition. Designed experiments involving independent manipulation of both fuel properties and engine control parameters have been used to build statistical engine response models. The models were then applied to optimize for the minimum fuel consumption subject to specific constraints on emissions and mechanical limits and also to estimate the optimum engine control parameter settings and fuel properties. The study reveals that under the high EGR, diffusion-burn dominated conditions encountered during the experiments, NOx is impacted by cetane number and the distillation characteristics. Lower T50 (mid-distillation temperature) resulted in simultaneous reductions in both NOx and smoke, and higher cetane number provided an additional small NOx benefit.
Technical Paper

The Chemistry, Properties, and HCCI Combustion Behavior of Refinery Streams Derived from Canadian Oil Sands Crude

2008-10-06
2008-01-2406
Diesel fuels derived from different types of crude oil can exhibit different chemistry while still meeting market requirements and specifications. Oil sands derived fuels typically contain a larger proportion of cycloparaffinic compounds, which result from the cracking and hydrotreating of bitumens in the crude. In the current study, 17 refinery streams consisting of finished fuels and process streams were obtained from a refinery using 100% oil sands derived crude oil. All samples except one met the ULSD standard of 15 ppm sulfur. The samples were characterized for properties and chemistry and run in a simple premixed HCCI engine using intake heating for combustion phasing control. Results indicate that the streams could be equally well characterized by chemistry or properties, and some simple correlations are presented. Cetane number was found to relate mainly to mono-aromatic content and the cycloparaffins did not appear to possess any unique diesel related chemical effects.
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