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Journal Article

“Verify-on-Demand” - A Practical and Scalable Approach for Broadcast Authentication in Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

2011-04-12
2011-01-0584
In general for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, message authentication is performed on every received wireless message by conducting verification for a valid signature, and only messages that have been successfully verified are processed further. In V2V safety communication, there are a large number of vehicles and each vehicle transmits safety messages frequently; therefore the number of received messages per second would be large. Thus authentication of each and every received message, for example based on the IEEE 1609.2 standard, is computationally very expensive and can only be carried out with expensive dedicated cryptographic hardware. An interesting observation is that most of these routine safety messages do not result in driver warnings or control actions since we expect that the safety system would be designed to provide warnings or control actions only when the threat of collision is high.
Technical Paper

“Just-in-Time” Battery Charge Depletion Control for PHEVs and E-REVs for Maximum Battery Life

2009-04-20
2009-01-1384
Conventional methods of vehicle operation for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles first discharge the battery to a minimum State of Charge (SOC) before switching to charge sustaining operation. This is very demanding on the battery, maximizing the number of trips ending with a depleted battery and maximizing the distance driven on a depleted battery over the vehicle's life. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the number of trips ending with a deeply discharged battery and also eliminate the need for extended driving on a depleted battery. An optimum SOC can be maintained for long battery life before discharging the battery so that the vehicle reaches an electric plug-in destination just as the battery reaches the minimum operating SOC. These “Just-in-Time” methods provide maximum effective battery life while getting virtually the same electricity from the grid.
Technical Paper

Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0354
As Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (EVs and HEVs) become more prevalent, there is a need to change the power source from gasoline on the vehicle to electricity from the grid in order to mitigate requirements for onboard energy storage (battery weight) as well as to reduce dependency on oil by increasing dependency on the grid (our coal, gas, and renewable energy instead of their oil). Traditional systems for trains and buses rely on physical contact to transfer electrical energy to vehicles in motion. Until recently, conventional magnetically coupled systems required a gap of less than a centimeter. This is not practical for vehicles of the future.
Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

Voltec Battery Design and Manufacturing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1360
In July 2007, GM announced that it would produce the Chevy Volt, the first high-production volume electric vehicle with extended range capability, by 2010. In January 2009, General Motors announced that the Chevrolet Volt's lithium ion Battery Pack, capable of propelling the Chevy Volt on battery-supplied electric power for up to 40 miles, would be designed and assembled in-house. The T-shaped battery, a subset of the Voltec propulsion system, comprises 288 cells, weighs 190 kg, and is capable of supplying over 16 kWh of energy. Many technical challenges presented themselves to the team, including the liquid thermal management of the battery, the fast battery pack development timeline, and validation of an unproven high-speed assembly process. This paper will first present a general overview of the approach General Motors utilized to bring the various engineering organizations together to design, develop, and manufacture the Volt battery.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of Condensation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers

2013-04-08
2013-01-0540
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to control engine-out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions. A portion of the exhaust gases is re-circulated into the intake manifold of the engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger. EGR cooler heat exchangers, however, tend to lose efficiency and have increased pressure drop as deposit forms on the heat exchanger surface due to transport of soot particles and condensing species to the cooler walls. In this study, condensation of water vapor and hydrocarbons at the exit of the EGR cooler was visualized using a fiberscope coupled to a camera equipped with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) color sensor. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to produce a range of engine-out hydrocarbon concentrations. Both surface and bulk gas condensation were observed with the visualization setup over a range of EGR cooler coolant temperatures.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: System Design & Objective Testing Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0575
The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, GM, Honda, Mercedes, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested communications-based vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0586
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Efficiency and Tractive Work: Rate of Change for the Past Decade and Accelerated Progress Required for U.S. Fuel Economy and CO2 Regulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0909
A major driving force for change in light-duty vehicle design and technology is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) joint final rules concerning Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for model years 2017 (MY17) through 2025 (MY25) passenger cars and light trucks. The chief goal of this current study is to compare the already rapid pace of fuel economy improvement and technological change over the previous decade to the required rate of change to meet regulations over the next decade. EPA and NHTSA comparisons of the model year 2005 (MY05) US light-duty vehicle fleet to the model year 2015 (MY15) fleet shows improved fuel economy (FE) of approximately 26% using the same FE estimating method mandated for CAFE regulations. Future predictions by EPA and NHTSA concerning ensemble fleet fuel economy are examined as an indicator of required vehicle rate-of-change.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Crash and Steering Column Frequency Simulation of an Aluminum Instrument Panel Structure

2011-04-12
2011-01-0765
Recent changes to the U.S. CAFÉ (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) requirements have caused increased focus on alternative vehicle component designs that offer mass savings while maintaining overall vehicle design and performance targets. The instrument panel components comprise approximately 6% of the total vehicle interior mass and are thus a key component of interest in mass optimization efforts. Typically, instrument panel structures are constructed of low carbon tubular steel cross car members with welded stamped steel component brackets. In some cases, instrument panel structures have incorporated high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels to reduce mass by reducing gage. In this study, aluminum low mass instrument panel structure concept designs are developed. This paper illustrates the differences between a HSLA steel solution and four different aluminum instrument panel structure designs.
Journal Article

Variable and Fixed Airflow for Vehicle Cooling

2011-04-12
2011-01-1340
This paper describes rationale for determining the apportionment of variable or ‘shuttered’ airflow and non-variable or static airflow through openings in the front of a vehicle as needed for vehicle cooling. Variable airflow can be achieved by means of a shutter system, which throttles airflow through the front end and into the Condenser, Radiator, and Fan Module, (CRFM). Shutters originated early in the history of the auto industry and acted as a thermostat [1]. They controlled airflow as opposed to coolant flow through the radiator. Two benefits that are realized today are aerodynamic and thermal gains, achieved by restricting unneeded cooling airflow. Other benefits exist and justify the use of shutters; however, there are also difficulties in both execution and practical use. This paper will focus on optimizing system performance and execution in terms of the two benefits of reduced aerodynamic drag and reduced mechanical drag through thermal control.
Journal Article

VOLTEC Battery System for Electric Vehicle with Extended Range

2011-04-12
2011-01-1373
Mid 2006 a study group at General Motors developed the concept for the electric vehicle with extended range (EREV),. The electric propulsion system should receive the electrical energy from a rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and/or an auxiliary power unit (APU) which could either be a hydrogen fuel cell or an internal combustion engine (ICE) driven generator. The study result was the Chevrolet VOLT concept car in the North American Auto Show in Detroit in 2007. The paper describes the requirements, concepts, development and the performance of the battery used as RESS for the ICE type VOLTEC propulsion system version of the Chevrolet Volt. The key requirement for the RESS is to provide energy to drive an electric vehicle with “no compromised performance” for 40 miles. Extended Range Mode allows for this experience to continue beyond 40 miles.
Technical Paper

Usage of Telematics for Battery and Vehicle State Monitoring

2011-04-12
2011-01-0748
This paper presents Telematics Battery Monitoring (TBM). TBM is a multi-faceted approach of collecting and analyzing electric power and vehicle data used to ultimately determine battery state of charge (SOC) and battery state of health (SOH) in both pre- and post-sale environments. Traditional methods of battery SOC analysis include labor intensive processes such as going out to the site of individual vehicle(s), gaining access to the vehicle battery, and then after the vehicle electrical system obtains its quiescent current level, performing a battery voltage check. This time-consuming manual method can practically only cover a small percentage of the vehicle population. In using the vehicle communication capabilities of Telematics, electric power and vehicle data are downloaded, compiled, and post-processed using decision-making software tools.
Journal Article

Understanding Driver Perceptions of a Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) Communication System Using a Test Track Demonstration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0577
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication systems can enable a number of wireless-based vehicle features that can improve traffic safety, driver convenience, and roadway efficiency and facilitate many types of in-vehicle services. These systems have an extended communication range that can provide drivers with information about the position and movements of nearby V2Vequipped vehicles. Using this technology, these vehicles are able to communicate roadway events that are beyond the driver's view and provide advisory information that will aid drivers in avoiding collisions or congestion ahead. Given a typical communication range of 300 meters, drivers can potentially receive information well in advance of their arrival to a particular location. The timing and nature of presenting V2V information to the driver will vary depending on the nature and criticality of the scenario.
Technical Paper

Ultracapacitor Based Active Energy Recovery Scheme for Fuel Economy Improvement in Conventional Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0345
In this paper, a low-cost means to improve fuel economy in conventional vehicles by employing ultracapacitor based Active Energy Recovery Buffer (AERB) scheme will be presented. The kinetic energy of the vehicle during the coast down events is utilized to charge the ultracapacitor either directly or through a dc-dc converter, allowing the voltage to increase up to the maximum permissible level. When the vehicle starts after a Stop event, the energy stored in the capacitor is discharged to power the accessory loads until the capacitor voltage falls below a minimum threshold. The use of stored capacitor energy to power the accessory loads relieves the generator torque load on the engine resulting in reduced fuel consumption. Two different topologies are considered for implementing the AERB system. The first topology, which is a simple add-on to the conventional vehicle electrical system, comprises of the ultracapacitor bank and the dc-dc converter connected across the dc bus.
Technical Paper

ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2802
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has emerged as an important issue in diesel engine development. Uncertainty about the level of impact that fuel chemistry may have upon this issue has resulted in a need to investigate the cooler fouling process with emerging non-traditional fuel sources to gage their impact on the process. This study reports experiments using both ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel (B20) at elevated exhaust hydrocarbon conditions to investigate the EGR cooler fouling process. The results show that there is little difference between the degradation in cooler effectiveness for ULSD and B20 at identical conditions. At lower coolant temperatures, B20 exhibits elevated organic fractions in the deposits compared with ULSD, but this does not appear to lead to incremental performance degradation under the conditions studied.
Journal Article

Torque Converter Clutch Optimization: Improving Fuel Economy and Reducing Noise and Vibration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0146
The torque converter and torque converter clutch are critical devices governing overall power transfer efficiency in automatic transmission powertrains. With calibrations becoming more aggressive to meet increasing fuel economy standards, the torque converter clutch is being applied over a wider range of driving conditions. At low engine speed and high engine torque, noise and vibration concerns originating from the driveline, powertrain or vehicle structure can supersede aggressive torque converter clutch scheduling. Understanding the torsional characteristics of the torque converter clutch and its interaction with the drivetrain can lead to a more robust design, operation in regions otherwise restricted by noise and vibration, and potential fuel economy improvement.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Design for Urealess Passive Ammonia SCR: Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0306
Lean-burn SIDI engine technology offers improved fuel economy; however, the reduction of NOx during lean-operation continues to be a major technical hurdle in the implementation of energy efficient technology. There are several aftertreatment technologies, including the lean NOx trap and active urea SCR, which have been widely considered, but they all suffer from high material cost and require customer intervention to fill the urea solution. Recently reported passive NH₃-SCR system - a simple, low-cost, and urea-free system - has the potential to enable the implementation of lean-burn gasoline engines. Key components in the passive NH₃-SCR aftertreatment system include a close-coupled TWC and underfloor SCR technology. NH₃ is formed on the TWC with short pulses of rich engine operation and the NH₃ is then stored on the underfloor SCR catalysts.
Journal Article

Thermal Mapping of an Automotive Rear Drive Axle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0718
In recent years, there has been a sustained effort by the automotive OEMs and suppliers to improve the vehicle driveline efficiency. This has been in response to customer demands for greater vehicle fuel economy and increasingly stringent government regulations. The automotive rear axle is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline, and hence represents an area where power loss improvements can have a significant impact on overall vehicle fuel economy. Both the friction induced mechanical losses and the spin losses vary significantly with the operating temperature of the lubricant. Also, the preloads in the bearings can vary due to temperature fluctuations. The temperatures of the lubricant, the gear tooth contacting surfaces, and the bearing contact surfaces are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life, and wear.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior Study on HEV Air-Cooled Battery Pack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1368
Recently, an increased emphasis has been seen for improving the cooling uniformity and efficiency of HEV battery pack in an effort to increase the battery performance and life. This study examined the effects of geometry changes in cooling systems of battery packs on thermal behavior of battery cells and pressure drop across the battery pack. Initially, a multi-physics battery thermal model was correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Latin-hypercube technique was then developed by integrating the correlated battery thermal model with a commercial optimization code, iSIGHT, and a morphing code, DEP Morpher. The design concepts of battery pack cooling systems were finally identified by performing analytical DOE/optimization studies to estimate the effects of cooling flow and geometries of cooling ducts on the battery temperature variation and pressure drop across the battery pack.
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