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Journal Article

Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

2014-04-01
2014-01-1562
We present simulated fuel economy and emissions of city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions are affected by complex interactions between engine load and the transient catalyst temperatures, and the emissions results were found to depend significantly on motor size and details of each drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Catalytic Oxidation and Selective Catalytic NOx Reduction in Lean-Exhaust Hybrid Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1304
We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel-powered hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles (HEVs and PHEVs). The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of commercially available Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust.
Journal Article

Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

2013-04-08
2013-01-1033
We compare the simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional heavy duty (HD) truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential benefit for HD hybrid vehicles during highway driving.
Technical Paper

Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

2017-03-28
2017-01-0183
It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work. The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements.
Journal Article

Exploring the Impact of Speed Synchronization through Connected Vehicle Technology on Fleet-Level Fuel Economy

2013-04-08
2013-01-0617
It is rare for an attempt towards optimization at the fleet-level when consideration is given to the sheer number of seemingly unpredictable interactions among vehicles and infrastructure in congested urban areas. To close the gap, we introduce a simulation based framework to explore the impact of speed synchronization on fuel economy improvement for fleets in traffic. The framework consists of traffic and vehicle modules. The traffic module is used to simulate driver behavior in urban traffic; and the vehicle module is employed to estimate fuel economy. Driving schedule is the linkage between these two modules. To explore the impact, a connected vehicle technology sharing vehicle speed information is used for better fuel economy of a fleet including six vehicles. In all scenarios analyzed, the leading vehicle operates under the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), while the other five vehicles follow the leader consecutively.
Technical Paper

Engine-Aftertreatment in Closed-Loop Modeling for Heavy Duty Truck Emissions Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-0986
An engine-aftertreatment computational model was developed to support in-loop performance simulations of tailpipe emissions and fuel consumption associated with a range of heavy-duty (HD) truck drive cycles. For purposes of this study, the engine-out exhaust dynamics were simulated with a combination of steady-state engine maps and dynamic correction factors that accounted for recent engine operating history. The engine correction factors were approximated as dynamic first-order lags associated with the thermal inertia of the major engine components and the rate at which engine-out exhaust temperature and composition vary as combustion heat is absorbed or lost to the surroundings. The aftertreatment model included catalytic monolith components for diesel exhaust oxidation, particulate filtration, and selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with urea.
Technical Paper

Dyno-in-the-Loop: An Innovative Hardware-in-the-Loop Development and Testing Platform for Emerging Mobility Technologies

2020-04-14
2020-01-1057
Today’s transportation is quickly transforming with the nascent advent of connectivity, automation, shared-mobility, and electrification. These technologies will not only affect our safety and mobility, but also our energy consumption, and environment. As a result, it is of unprecedented importance to understand the overall system impacts due to the introduction of these emerging technologies and concepts. Existing modeling tools are not able to effectively capture the implications of these technologies, not to mention accurately and reliably evaluating their effectiveness with a reasonable scope. To address these gaps, a dynamometer-in-the-loop (DiL) development and testing approach is proposed which integrates test vehicle(s), chassis dynamometer, and high fidelity traffic simulation tools, in order to achieve a balance between the model accuracy and scalability of environmental analysis for the next generation of transportation systems.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

2016-04-05
2016-01-0248
Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning-based Queue-aware Eco-Approach and Departure system for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus at signalized intersections: a simulation study

2020-04-14
2020-01-0584
Eco-Approach and Departure (EAD) has been considered as a promising eco-driving strategy for vehicles traveling in an urban environment, where signal phase and timing (SPaT) and geometric intersection description (GID) information are well utilized to guide the vehicles passing through the intersection in a most energy efficient manner. Previous studies by the authors formulated the optimal trajectory planning problem as finding the shortest path on a graph model where the nodes define the reachable states of the host vehicle (e.g., speed, location) at each time step, the links govern the state reachability from previous time step, and the link costs represent the energy consumption rate due to state transition. This method is effective in energy saving, but its computation efficiency can be enhanced by machine learning techniques.
Technical Paper

Comparative Urban Drive Cycle Simulations of Light-Duty Hybrid Vehicles with Gasoline or Diesel Engines and Emissions Controls

2013-04-08
2013-01-1585
We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines. Our simulations utilize previously published models of transient engine-out emissions and models of aftertreatment devices for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions were estimated for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles operating over single and multiple urban drive cycles. Comparisons between the gasoline and diesel vehicle fuel consumptions and emissions were used to identify potential advantages and technical barriers for diesel hybrids.
Journal Article

Comparative Study of Hybrid Powertrains on Fuel Saving, Emissions, and Component Energy Loss in HD Trucks

2014-09-30
2014-01-2326
Two hybrid powertrain configurations, including parallel and series hybrids, were simulated for fuel economy, component energy loss, and emissions control in Class 8 trucks over both city and highway driving conditions. A comprehensive set of component models describing engine fuel consumption, emissions control, battery energy, and accessory power demand interactions was developed and integrated with the simulated hybrid trucks to identify heavy-duty (HD) hybrid technology barriers. The results show that series hybrid is absolutely negative for fuel-economy improvement of long-haul trucks due to an efficiency penalty associated with the dual-step conversions of energy (i.e. mechanical to electric to mechanical).
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