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Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

Visualization Techniques for Single Channel DPF Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1126
New techniques have been developed to visualize soot deposition in both traditional and new diesel particulate filter (DPF) substrate materials using a modified cyanoacrylate fuming technique. Loading experiments have been conducted on a variety of single channel DPF substrates to develop a deeper understanding of soot penetration, soot deposition characteristics, and to confirm modeling results. Early results indicate that stabilizing the soot layer using a vaporized adhesive (Cynoacrylate) may allow analysis of the layer with new methods.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Exhaust Treatment Using Electrical Discharge Methods

1997-05-01
971716
The destruction of low concentrations (<600 ppm) of nitric oxide using a low-temperature, dielectric barrier/packed-bed corona reactor has been studied. We compare the chemistry and energy efficiencies observed using various packing materials in warm moist air under oxidative (lean-burn) conditions. Measurements of NO and NOx removal in the effluent gas were made as a function of energy dissipated in the reactor. Changes in the observed fate of NO as a function of the packing material are discussed.
Technical Paper

Tribological Characteristics of Electrolytic Coatings for Aluminum Engine Cylinder Lining Applications

2002-03-04
2002-01-0490
The friction and wear characteristics of three commercially-available, electrolytic coatings for aluminum engine cylinder bores were compared to those of cast iron liners. A Ni/SiC electrocomposite, a hard anodized treatment, and a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated. ASTM standard test method G133-95, non-firing test method, for linearly reciprocating sliding wear was modified to use segments of piston rings and cylinder liners. Tests were conducted using Mr. Goodwrench™ 5W30 as a lubricant at room temperature. The normal force was 150N, the reciprocating frequency was 15Hz, the stroke length was 8mm, and the test duration was 60 minutes. Kinetic friction coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.22, typical of boundary lubrication. The Ni/SiC and cast iron samples exhibited the lowest friction. The wear resistance of the Ni/SiC coating was superior to that of cast iron.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Particulate Emissions During Enrichment for Diesel Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

2005-04-11
2005-01-0186
Laser-induced incandescence is used to measure time-resolved diesel particulate emissions for two lean NOx trap regeneration strategies that utilize intake throttling and in-cylinder fuel enrichment. The results show that when the main injection event is increased in duration and delayed 13 crank-angle degrees, particulate emissions are very high. For a repetitive pattern of 3 seconds of rich regeneration followed by 27 seconds of NOx-trap loading, we find a monotonic increase in particulate emissions during the loading intervals that approaches twice the initial baseline particulate level after 1000 seconds. In contrast, particulate emissions during the regeneration intervals are constant throughout the test sequence.
Technical Paper

Thermographic Measurements of Volatile Particulate Matter

2015-09-01
2015-01-1992
Semi-volatile species in the exhaust can condense on the primary particulate matter (PM) forming significant secondary PM mass downstream1. We developed a new thermographic technique to measure the volatility of a particle population. The instrument is called vapor-particle separator (VPS)2. A two-parameter model was used to interpret the thermographic data3. These two parameters define volatilization potential and thermodynamic capacity of the particles. The volatization potential delineates the unique particle volatility, while the thermodynamic capacity illustrates the work required to eliminate the particles. The thermodynamic capacity is found much smaller for small particles than that for large particles.
Technical Paper

The Use of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations to Evaluate the Robustness of Variable Compression Ratio as a Control Method for Gasoline HCCI

2007-04-16
2007-01-0224
On a gasoline engine platform, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds the promise of improved fuel economy and greatly reduced engine-out NOx emissions, without an increase in particulate matter emissions. In this investigation, a variable compression ratio (CR) engine equipped with a throttle and intake air heating was used to test the robustness of these control parameters to accommodate a series of fuels blended from reference gasoline, straight run refinery naphtha, and ethanol. Higher compression ratios allowed for operation with higher octane fuels, but operation could not be achieved with the reference gasoline, even at the highest compression ratio. Compression ratio and intake heat could be used separately or together to modulate combustion. A lambda of 2 provided optimum fuel efficiency, even though some throttling was necessary to achieve this condition. Ethanol did not appear to assist combustion, although only two ethanol-containing fuels were evaluated.
Technical Paper

The Roles of Phosphorus and Soot on the Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0628
The deactivation of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) by soot contamination and lube-oil derived phosphorus poisoning is investigated. Pt/CeO2/γ-AI2O3 DOCs aged using three different protocols developed by the authors and six high mileage field-returned DOCs of similar formulation are evaluated for THC and CO oxidation performance using a bench-flow reactor. Collectively, these catalysts exhibit a variety of phosphorus and soot morphologies contributing to performance deactivation.
Technical Paper

The Role of Second Phase Hard Particles on Hole Stretchability of Two AA6xxx Alloys

2017-03-28
2017-01-0307
The hole stretchability of two Aluminum Alloys (AA6111 and AA6022) are studied by using a two stages integrated finite element framework where the edge geometry and edge damages from the hole piercing processes were considered in the subsequent hole expansion processes. Experimentally it has been found that AA6022 has higher hole expansion ratios than those of AA6111. This observation has been nicely captured by finite element simulations. The main cause of differences have been identified to the volume fractions of the random distributed second phase hard particles which play a critical role in determining the fracture strains of the materials.
Journal Article

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on the Knock Limit of “E85”

2013-04-08
2013-01-0888
Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called “E85,” underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane “E85” fuel.
Technical Paper

Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2493
It is widely recognized that future NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion and aftertreatment technologies will be required. In this study, advanced combustion modes operating with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst were evaluated on a 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and one PCCI-type (premixed charge combustion ignition) combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Five steady-state operating conditions were evaluated. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable.
Technical Paper

Sustained Low Temperature NOx Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0341
Sustained NOx reduction at low temperatures, especially in the 150-200 °C range, shares some similarities with the more commonly discussed cold-start challenge, however, poses a number of additional and distinct technical problems. In this project, we set a bold target of achieving and maintaining 90% NOx conversion at the SCR catalyst inlet temperature of 150 °C. This project is intended to push the boundaries of the existing technologies, while staying within the realm of realistic future practical implementation. In order to meet the resulting challenges at the levels of catalyst fundamentals, system components, and system integration, Cummins has partnered with the DOE, Johnson Matthey, and Pacific Northwest National Lab and initiated the Sustained Low-Temperature NOx Reduction program at the beginning of 2015 and completed in 2017.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Engine Testing of γ-Alumina Catalysts Under Plasma Assist for NOx Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust

2003-03-03
2003-01-1186
A slipstream of exhaust from a Caterpillar 3126B engine was diverted into a plasma-catalytic NOx control system in the space velocity range of 7,000 to 100,000 hr-1. The stream was first fed through a non-thermal plasma that was formed in a coaxial cylinder dielectric barrier discharge reactor. Plasma treated gas was then passed over a catalyst bed held at constant temperature in the range of 573 to 773 K. Catalysts examined consisted of γ-alumina, indium-doped γ-alumina, and silver-doped γ-alumina. Road and rated load conditions resulted in engine out NOx levels of 250 - 600 ppm. The effects of hydrocarbon level, catalyst temperature, and space velocity are discussed where propene and in one case ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (late cycle injection) were the reducing agents used for NOx reduction. Results showed NOx reduction in the range of 25 - 97% depending on engine operating conditions and management of the catalyst and slipstream conditions.
Technical Paper

Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2501
This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NOx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NOx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%).
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Low Engine-Out NOx and Particulate Matter with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0262
This paper describes the simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in a modern light-duty diesel engine under high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM emissions was observed under lean conditions at several low to moderate load conditions using two different approaches. The first approach utilizes a throttle to increase EGR rate beyond the maximum rate possible with sole use of the EGR valve for a particular engine condition. The second approach does not use a throttle, but rather uses a combination of EGR and manipulation of injection parameters. A significant reduction in particulate matter size and concentration was observed corresponding to the reduction in particulate mass. This PM reduction was accompanied by a significant shift in the heat release profile. In addition, there were significant cylinder-to-cylinder variations in particulate matter characteristics, gaseous emissions, and heat release.
Journal Article

Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

2014-04-01
2014-01-1562
We present simulated fuel economy and emissions of city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions are affected by complex interactions between engine load and the transient catalyst temperatures, and the emissions results were found to depend significantly on motor size and details of each drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Catalytic Oxidation and Selective Catalytic NOx Reduction in Lean-Exhaust Hybrid Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1304
We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel-powered hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles (HEVs and PHEVs). The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of commercially available Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust.
Journal Article

Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

2013-04-08
2013-01-1033
We compare the simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional heavy duty (HD) truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential benefit for HD hybrid vehicles during highway driving.
Technical Paper

Selective Reduction of NOx in Oxygen Rich Environments with Plasma-Assisted Catalysis: The Role of Plasma and Reactive Intermediates

2001-09-24
2001-01-3513
The catalytic activity of selected materials (BaY and NaY zeolites, and γ-alumina) for selective NOx reduction in combination with a non-thermal plasma was investigated. Our studies suggest that aldehydes, formed during the plasma treatment of simulated diesel exhaust, are the important species for the reduction of NOx to N2. Indeed, all materials that are active in plasma-assisted catalysis were found to be very effective for the thermal reduction of NOx in the presence of aldehydes. For example, the thermal catalytic activity of a BaY zeolite with aldehydes gives 80-90% NOx removal at 250°C with 200ppm NOx at the inlet and a VHSV=12,000 h-1. The hydrocarbon reductants, n-octane and 1-propyl alcohol, have also shown high thermal catalytic activity for NOx removal over BaY, NaY and γ-alumina.
Technical Paper

Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst in Lean Gasoline Engine Exhaust

2015-04-14
2015-01-1008
Ethanol is a very effective reductant for nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environments. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the U.S., lean gasoline engines equipped with Ag/Al2O3 catalysts have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for evaluation of catalyst performance.
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