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Technical Paper

Modeling Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps Under Reducing Conditions

A set of elementary surface reactions is proposed for modeling the chemistry in a lean NOx trap during regeneration (reduction of stored NOx). The proposed reaction mechanism can account for the observed product distribution from the trap over a range of temperatures and inlet gas compositions similar to those expected for realistic operation. The mechanism includes many reactions already discussed in the literature, together with some hypothesized reactions that are required to match observations from temperature programmed reactor experiments with a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst. Preliminary results indicate that the NOx trap regeneration and byproduct formation rates can be effectively captured by using a relatively compact set of elementary reactions.
Technical Paper

Controlling Cyclic Combustion Variations in Lean-Fueled Spark-Ignition Engines

This paper describes the reduction of cyclic combustion variations in spark-ignited engines, especially under idle conditions in which the air-fuel mixture is lean of stoichiometry. Under such conditions, the combination of residual cylinder gas and parametric variations (such as variations in fuel preparation) gives rise to significant combustion instabilities that may lead to customer-perceived engine roughness and transient emissions spikes. Such combustion instabilities may preclude operation at air-fuel ratios that would otherwise be advantageous for fuel economy and emissions. This approach exploits the recognition that a component of the observed combustion instability results from a noise-driven, nonlinear deterministic mechanism that can be actively stabilized by small feedback control actions which result in little if any additional use of fuel.