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Technical Paper

Emission Performance of Selected Biodiesel Fuels

Because of the great interest in biodiesel fuels around the world, the International Energy Agency's Committee on Advanced Motor Fuels sponsored this project to determine emissions and performance of a number of biodiesel fuels with a special emphasis on unregulated emissions. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Technical Research Centre in Finland (VTT) carried out the project with complementary work plans. Several different engines were used between the two sites, and in some cases emissions control catalysts were used, both at ORNL and at VTT. ORNL concentrated on light and medium duty engines, while VTT emphasized a heavy-duty engine and also used a light duty car as a test bed. Common fuels between the two sites for these tests were rape methyl ester in 30% blend and neat, soy methyl ester in 30% blend and neat, used vegetable oil methyl ester (UVOME) in 30% blend, and the Swedish environmental class 1 reformulated diesel (RFD).
Journal Article

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple “cold” start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts.