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Technical Paper

Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx Emissions from a 5.9 Liter Diesel Engine Using Ethanol as a Reductant

NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400°C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx reduction appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR reductant was demonstrated.
Journal Article

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Selective Catalytic Reduction Using a Silver-Alumina Catalyst with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants

Previously reported work with a full-scale ethanol-SCR system featuring a Ag-Al2O3 catalyst demonstrated that this particular system has potential to reduce NOx emissions 80-90% for engine operating conditions that allow catalyst temperatures above 340°C. A concept explored was utilization of a fuel-borne reductant, in this case ethanol “stripped” from an ethanol-diesel micro-emulsion fuel. Increased tailpipe-out emissions of hydrocarbons, acetaldehyde and ammonia were measured, but very little N2O was detected. In the current increment of work, a number of light alcohols and other hydrocarbons were used in experiments to map their performance with the same Ag-Al2O3 catalyst. These exploratory tests are aimed at identification of compounds or organic functional groups that could be candidates for fuel-borne reductants in a compression ignition fuel, or could be produced by some workable method of fuel reforming.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp (134 kW) on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles.
Journal Article

Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization.
Technical Paper

Emissions From a 5.9 Liter Diesel Engine Fueled With Ethanol Diesel Blends

A certification diesel fuel and blends containing 10 and 15 volume % ethanol were tested in a 5.9-liter Cummins B Series engine. For each fuel blend, an 8-mode AVL test cycle was performed. The resulting emissions were characterized and measured for each individual test mode (prescribed combination of engine speed and load). These individual mode results are used to create a weighted average that is designed to approximate the results of the Heavy-Duty Transient Federal Test Procedure. The addition of ethanol was observed to have no noticeable effect on the emission of NOx but produced small increases in CO and HC. However, the particulate matter was observed to decrease 20% and 30% with the addition of 10% and 15% ethanol, respectively.
Journal Article

Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity-controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline-to-diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of GDI PM during Vehicle Start-Stop Operation

As the fuel economy regulations increase in stringency, many manufacturers are implementing start-stop operation to enhance vehicle fuel economy. During start-stop operation, the engine shuts off when the vehicle is stationary for more than a few seconds. When the brake is released by the driver, the engine restarts. Depending on traffic conditions, start-stop operation can result in fuel savings from a few percent to close to 10%. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are also increasingly available on light-duty vehicles. While GDI engines offer fuel economy advantages over port fuel injected (PFI) engines, they also tend to have higher PM emissions, particularly during start-up transients. Thus, there is interest in evaluating the effect of start-stop operation on PM emissions. In this study, a 2.5L GDI vehicle was operated over the FTP75 drive cycle.