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Technical Paper

ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has emerged as an important issue in diesel engine development. Uncertainty about the level of impact that fuel chemistry may have upon this issue has resulted in a need to investigate the cooler fouling process with emerging non-traditional fuel sources to gage their impact on the process. This study reports experiments using both ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel (B20) at elevated exhaust hydrocarbon conditions to investigate the EGR cooler fouling process. The results show that there is little difference between the degradation in cooler effectiveness for ULSD and B20 at identical conditions. At lower coolant temperatures, B20 exhibits elevated organic fractions in the deposits compared with ULSD, but this does not appear to lead to incremental performance degradation under the conditions studied.
Journal Article

The Reduced Effectiveness of EGR to Mitigate Knock at High Loads in Boosted SI Engines

Numerous studies have demonstrated that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can attenuate knock propensity in spark ignition (SI) engines at naturally aspirated or lightly boosted conditions [1]. In this study, we investigate the role of cooled EGR under higher load conditions with multiple fuel compositions, where highly retarded combustion phasing typical of modern SI engines was used. It was found that under these conditions, EGR attenuation of knock is greatly reduced, where EGR doesn’t allow significant combustion phasing advance as it does under lighter load conditions. Detailed combustion analysis shows that when EGR is added, the polytropic coefficient increases causing the compressive pressure and temperature to increase. At sufficiently highly boosted conditions, the increase in polytropic coefficient and additional trapped mass from EGR can sufficiently reduce fuel ignition delay to overcome knock attenuation effects.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal Efficiency in an HCCI Engine

The effects of variable compression ratio (CR) and fuel composition on thermal efficiency were investigated in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using blends of n-heptane and toluene with research octane numbers (RON) of 0 to 90. Experiments were conducted by performing CR sweeps at multiple intake temperatures using both unthrottled operation, and constant Φ conditions by throttling to compensate for varying air density. It was found that CR is effective at changing and controlling the HCCI combustion phasing midpoint, denoted here as CA 50. Thermal efficiency was a strong function of CA 50, with overly advanced CA 50 leading to efficiency decreases. Increases in CR at a constant CA 50 for a given fuel composition did, in most cases, increase efficiency, but the relationship was weaker than the dependence of efficiency on CA 50.
Technical Paper

Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

It is widely recognized that future NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion and aftertreatment technologies will be required. In this study, advanced combustion modes operating with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst were evaluated on a 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and one PCCI-type (premixed charge combustion ignition) combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Five steady-state operating conditions were evaluated. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Low Engine-Out NOx and Particulate Matter with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustion

This paper describes the simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in a modern light-duty diesel engine under high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM emissions was observed under lean conditions at several low to moderate load conditions using two different approaches. The first approach utilizes a throttle to increase EGR rate beyond the maximum rate possible with sole use of the EGR valve for a particular engine condition. The second approach does not use a throttle, but rather uses a combination of EGR and manipulation of injection parameters. A significant reduction in particulate matter size and concentration was observed corresponding to the reduction in particulate mass. This PM reduction was accompanied by a significant shift in the heat release profile. In addition, there were significant cylinder-to-cylinder variations in particulate matter characteristics, gaseous emissions, and heat release.
Technical Paper

Resolving EGR Distribution and Mixing

A minimally invasive spatially resolved capillary inlet mass spectrometer has been used to quantify EGR/air mixing in a Cummins V-8 medium-duty diesel engine. Two EGR-system hardware designs were evaluated in terms of EGR-air mixing at the intake manifold inlet and port-to-port EGR charge uniformity. Performance was assessed at four modalized-FTP engine conditions. One design is found to be considerably better, particularly at three of the four engine conditions. Specific questions such as the effect of maximizing mass air flow on EGR mixing, and if particular cylinders are EGR starved are investigated. The detailed performance characteristics suggest areas to focus improvement efforts, and serve as a foundation for identifying the non-uniformity EGR barriers and origins.
Journal Article

Removal of EGR Cooler Deposit Material by Flow-Induced Shear

A number of studies have identified a tendency for exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers to foul to a steady-state level and subsequently not degrade further. One possible explanation for this behavior is that the shear force imposed by the gas velocity increases as the deposit thickens. If the shear force reaches a critical level, it achieves a removal of the deposit material that can balance the rate of deposition of new material, creating a stabilized condition. This study reports efforts to observe removal of deposit material in-situ during fouling studies as well as an ex-situ removal through the use of controlled air flows. The critical gas velocity and shear stress necessary to cause removal of deposit material is identified and reported. In-situ observations failed to show convincing evidence of a removal of deposit material. The results show that removal of deposit material requires a relatively high velocity of 40 m/s or higher to cause removal.
Journal Article

RCCI Combustion Regime Transitions in a Single-Cylinder Optical Engine and a Multi-Cylinder Metal Engine

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an approach to increase engine efficiency and lower engine-out emissions by using in-cylinder stratification of fuels with differing reactivity (i.e., autoignition characteristics) to control combustion phasing. Stratification can be altered by varying the injection timing of the high-reactivity fuel, causing transitions across multiple regimes of combustion. When injection is sufficiently early, combustion approaches a highly-premixed autoignition regime, and when it is sufficiently late it approaches more mixing-controlled, diesel-like conditions. Engine performance, emissions, and control authority over combustion phasing with injection timing are most favorable in between, within the RCCI regime.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Half-Heusler Thermoelectric Generator for Automotive Application

Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been researched and developed for harvesting energy from otherwise wasted heat. For automotive applications this will most likely involve using internal combustion engine exhaust as the heat source, with the TEG positioned after the catalyst system. Applications to exhaust gas recirculation systems and compressed air coolers have also been suggested. A thermoelectric generator based on half-Heusler thermoelectric materials was developed, engineered, and fabricated, targeting a gasoline passenger sedan application. This generator was installed on a gasoline engine exhaust system in a dynamometer cell, and positioned immediately downstream of the close-coupled three-way catalyst. The generator was characterized using a matrix of steady-state conditions representing the important portions of the engine map. Detailed performance results are presented.
Technical Paper

On the Nature of Cyclic Dispersion in Spark Assisted HCCI Combustion

We report experimental observations of cyclic combustion variability during the transition between propagating flame combustion and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) in a single-cylinder, stoichiometrically fueled, spark-assisted gasoline engine. The level of internal EGR was controlled with variable valve actuation (VVA), and HCCI combustion was achieved at high levels of internal EGR using the VVA system. Spark-ignition was used for conventional combustion and was optionally available during HCCI. The transition region between purely propagating combustion and HCCI was mapped at multiple engine speeds and loads by incrementally adjusting the internal EGR level and capturing data for 2800 sequential cycles. These measurements revealed a complex sequence of high COV, cyclic combustion variations when operating between the propagating flame and HCCI limits.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of High-Pressure Fast-Response Common Rail Injector Dynamics

Managing the injection rate profile is a powerful tool to control engine performance and emission levels. In particular, Common Rail (C.R.) injection systems allow an almost completely flexible fuel injection event in DI-diesel engines by permitting a free mapping of the start of injection, injection pressure, rate of injection and, in the near future, multiple injections. This research deals with the development of a network-based numerical tool for understanding operating condition limits of the Common Rail injector. The models simulate the electro-fluid-mechanical behavior of the injector accounting for cavitation in the nozzle holes. Validation against experiments has been performed. The model has been used to provide insight into the operating conditions of the injector and in order to highlight the application to injection system design.
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Journal Article

Mixed-Source EGR for Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

The source of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and consequently composition and temperature, has a significant effect on advanced combustion modes including stability, efficiency, and emissions. The effects of high-pressure loop EGR (HPL EGR) and low-pressure loop EGR (LPL EGR) on achieving high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) modes in a light-duty diesel engine were characterized in this study. High dilution operation is complicated in real-world situations due to inadequate control of mixture temperature and the slow response of LPL EGR systems. Mixed-source EGR (combination of HPL EGR and LPL EGR) was investigated as a reasonable approach for controlling mixture temperature. The potential of mixed-source EGR has been explored using LPL EGR as a ‘base’ for dilution rather than as a sole source. HPL EGR provides the ‘trim’ for controlling mixture temperature and has the potential for enabling precise control of dilution targets.
Technical Paper

Microstructural Analysis of Deposits on Heavy-Duty EGR Coolers

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOX emissions standards and has negative impacts on cooler sizing and engine performance. In order to improve our knowledge of cooler fouling as a function of engine operating parameters and to predict and enhance performance, 19 tube-in-shell EGR coolers were fouled using a 5-factor, 3-level design of experiments with the following variables: (1) EGR flow rate, (2) EGR inlet gas temperature, (3) coolant temperature, (4) soot level, and (5) hydrocarbon concentration. A 9-liter engine and ULSD fuel were used to form the cooler deposits. Coolers were run until the effectiveness stabilized, and then were cooled down to room temperature and run for an additional few hours in order to measure the change in effectiveness due to shut down. The coolers were cut open and the mass per unit area of the deposit was measured as a function of distance down the tube.
Technical Paper

Metal Compression Forming - A New Process for Structural Aluminum Alloy Castings

Metal Compression Forming (MCF) is a variant of the squeeze casting process, in which molten metal is allowed to solidify under pressure in order to close porosity and form a sound part. However, the MCF process applies pressure on the entire mold face, thereby directing pressure on all regions of the casting and producing a uniformly sound part. The process is capable of producing parts with properties close to those of forgings, while retaining the near net shape, complexity in geometry, and relatively low cost of the casting process. The paper describes the casting process development involved in the production of an aluminum A357 alloy motor mount bracket, including the use of a filling and solidification model to design the gating and determine process parameters. Tensile properties of the component are presented and correlated with those of forged components.

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.
Technical Paper

Investigating Potential Light-duty Efficiency Improvements through Simulation of Turbo-compounding and Waste-heat Recovery Systems

Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment.
Journal Article

Influence of High Fuel Rail Pressure and Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction on PM Formation in an Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The influence of fuel rail pressure (FRP) and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on particulate matter (PM) formation is investigated in this paper along with notes regarding the NOx and other emissions. Increasing FRP was shown to reduce the overall soot and total PM mass for four operating conditions. These conditions included two high speed conditions (2400 rpm at 540 and 270 Nm of torque) and two moderated speed conditions (1400 rpm at 488 and 325 Nm). The concentrations of CO2 and NOx increased with fuel rail pressure and this is attributed to improved fuel-air mixing. Interestingly, the level of unburned hydrocarbons remained constant (or increased slightly) with increased FRP. PM concentration was measured using an AVL smoke meter and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS); and total PM was collected using standard gravimetric techniques. These results showed that the smoke number and particulate concentrations decrease with increasing FRP.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Using Low Temperature Combustion

A Lean NOx Trap (LNT) regeneration method that has shown promise regarding its ability to effectively regenerate the LNT, while not adversely affecting the PM emissions, involves the use of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC). LTC is accomplished by highly diluting the intake charge with EGR.1-3* If enough EGR is applied, the in-cylinder air:fuel mixture, and ensuing exhaust, will become rich, thereby regenerating the LNT. This type of highly dilute combustion tends to be more premixed than diffusion, which can lower engine-out PM and NOx emissions. LTC regeneration has been characterized and results are presented comparing this approach to other approaches for rich, in-cylinder diesel combustion for LNT regeneration.