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Technical Paper

Tribological and Metallurgical Properties of Nitrided AISI 4340 Steel

2014-04-01
2014-01-0959
Nitridng usually improves wear resistance and can be accomplished using a gas or plasma method; it's necessary to find if there is any difference in surface roughness, wear and/or wear mechanism when choosing between methods for nitriding. In this study, Ball-on-disk wear test was compared on coupons nitrided with five different nitriding cycles that processed at temperatures of 500-570°C, with a processing time of 8 - 80 hrs. Different compound layer thicknesses were formed, (5-8μm), and a minimum of 0.38 mm case depth was produced. Nitrided samples were also compared to nitrocarburized and the nitrided coupons with a “0” compound layer in a ball-on-disk test. Few selected coupons were post-polished and wear test on ball-on-disk test was compared with the coupons without post polishing. Optical surface roughness using White Light Interferometry (WLIM) and metallurgical testing was performed.
Technical Paper

The Research Progress of Dynamic Photo-Elastic Method

2014-04-01
2014-01-0829
With the rapid development of computing technology, high-speed photography system and image processing recently, in order to meet growing dynamic mechanical engineering problems demand, a brief description of advances in recent research which solved some key problems of dynamic photo-elastic method will be given, including:(1) New digital dynamic photo-elastic instrument was developed. Multi-spark discharge light source was replaced by laser light source which was a high intensity light source continuous and real-time. Multiple cameras shooting system was replaced by high-speed photography system. The whole system device was controlled by software. The image optimization collection was realized and a strong guarantee was provided for digital image processing. (2)The static and dynamic photo-elastic materials were explored. The new formula and process of the dynamic photo-elastic model materials will be introduced. The silicon rubber mold was used without the release agent.
Technical Paper

The Digital Image Correlation Technique Applied to Hole Drilling Residual Stress Measurement

2014-04-01
2014-01-0825
The residual stresses found in components are mainly due to thermal, mechanical and metallurgical changes of material. The manufacturing processes such as fabrication, assembly, welding, rolling, heat treatment, shot peening etc. generate residual stresses in material. The influence of residual stress can be beneficial or detrimental depending on nature and distribution of the residual stress in material. In general, the compressive residual stress can increase the fatigue life of material because it provides greater resistance for crack initiation and propagation. A significant number of improvements for residual stress measurement techniques have occurred in last few decades. The most popular technique of residual stress measurement is based on the principle of strain gage rosette and hole drilling (ASTM E837-01, destructive).
Journal Article

Spatial Phase-Shift Digital Shearography for Out-of-Plane Deformation Measurement

2014-04-01
2014-01-0824
Measuring deformation under dynamic loading is still a key problem in the automobile industry. The first spatial phase-shift shearography system for relative deformation measurement is reported. Traditional temporal phase-shift technique-based shearography systems are capable of measuring relative deformation by using a reference object. However, due to its low acquisition rate, the existing temporal phase-shift shearography system can be only used under static loading situations. This paper introduces a digital shearography system which utilizes the spatial phase-shift technique to obtain an extremely high acquisition rate. The newly developed spatial phase-shift shearography system uses a Michelson-Interferometer as the shearing device. A high power laser at 532nm wavelength is used as the light source. A one mega pixels high speed CCD camera is used to record the speckle pattern interference.
Journal Article

Scuffing Behavior of 4140 Alloy Steel and Ductile Cast Iron

2012-04-16
2012-01-0189
Scuffing is a failure mechanism which can occur in various engineering components, such as engine cylinder kits, gears and cam/followers. In this research, the scuffing behavior of 4140 steel and ductile iron was investigated and compared through ball-on-disk scuffing tests. A step load of 22.2 N every two minutes was applied with a light mineral oil as lubricant to determine the scuffing load. Both materials were heat treated to various hardness and tests were conducted to compare the scuffing behavior of the materials when the tempered hardness of each material was the same. Ductile iron was found to have a consistently high scuffing resistance before tempering and at tempering temperatures lower than 427°C (HRC ≻45). Above 427°C the scuffing resistance decreases. 4140 steel was found to have low scuffing resistance at low tempering temperatures, but as the tempering temperature increases, the scuffing resistance increased.
Journal Article

Residual Stresses in As-Quenched Aluminum Castings

2008-04-14
2008-01-1425
A significant amount of residual stresses can be developed in aluminum castings during heat treatment. This paper reports an experimental study of the residual stress distributions in aluminum castings after solution treatment and water quench. The residual stresses in aluminum castings are measured using both optical and resistance strain rosettes. The optical strain rosette technique was recently developed in conjunction with ring-core cutting method for residual stress measurement. The measured residual stresses from optical and resistance strain rosettes are compared with the results of X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of various measurement methods are discussed.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0835
Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Thermal Residual Strain Induced During the Hardening of a Sheet Metal and Reinforced Composite by Digital Shearography

2005-04-11
2005-01-0895
Shearography is an interferometric, non-contact and full field method for direct measurement of first derivatives of deformation (strain). It is relatively insensitive to environmental disturbances and has been proven to be a practical measuring tool for nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE). In this paper it has been employed to study the thermal residual strains produced during the reinforcement of a composite to a sheet metal. The reinforced composite is used as an additive to provide extra strength to the sheet metal. The reinforcement process involves gradual heating of the glued composite to a temperature of around 175°C - 180°C and then allowing it cool down to room temperature. During the heating process both the composite and the sheet metal are strained, but during the cooling process some amount of strain is left behind in the sheet metal and it has a key role to play when the product is used for critical parts in automobile and aircraft industries.
Journal Article

Long Life Axial Fatigue Strength Models for Ferrous Powder Metals

2018-04-03
2018-01-1395
Two models are presented for the long life (107 cycles) axial fatigue strength of four ferrous powder metal (PM) material series: sintered and heat-treated iron-carbon steel, iron-copper and copper steel, iron-nickel and nickel steel, and pre-alloyed steel. The materials are defined at ranges of carbon content and densities using the broad data available in the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) Standard 35 for PM structural parts. The first model evaluates 107 cycles axial fatigue strength as a function of ultimate strength and the second model as a function of hardness. For all 118 studied materials, both models are found to have a good correlation between calculated and 107 cycles axial fatigue strength with a high Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97. The article provides details on the model development and the reasoning for selecting the ultimate strength and hardness as the best predictors for 107 cycles axial fatigue strength.
Technical Paper

FEA Simulation of Induction Hardening and Residual Stress of Auto Components

2009-04-20
2009-01-0418
The paper studies the distributions of residual stresses in auto components after induction hardening. Three prototype parts are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, the temperature fields of the analyzed parts are quantitatively simulated during quenching by simulating surface heating to the austenitization temperature of the material. Secondly, the formation and states of the residual stresses are predicted. Therefore the distribution of residual stress is simulated and shows compressive stresses on the surface of components so that the strength can be improved. The simulated results by computer are compared with experimental results. The good comparison indicates that the results obtained by the FEA analysis are reliable. Thus, it can be concluded that the FEA (Finite element analysis) program is effectively developed to simulate heating and quenching processes and residual stresses distribution.
Technical Paper

Effect of Tool Stiffness and Cutting Edge Condition on Quality and Stretchability of Sheared Edge of Aluminum Blanks

2016-04-05
2016-01-0348
Stamping die design recommendations attempt to limit the production of burrs through accurate alignment of the upper and lower trimming edges. For aluminum automotive exterior panels, this translates to a clearance less than 0.1 mm. However, quality of sheared edge and its stretchability are affected by stiffness of the cutting tool against opening of the clearance between the shearing edges. The objective of the study is to investigate the influence of stiffness of trimming or piercing dies against opening of the cutting clearance on sheared edge stretchability of aluminum blanks 6111-T4. For experimental study, one side of the sample had sheared surface obtained by the trimming process while the other side of the sample had a smooth surface achieved by metal finish. Burr heights of the sheared edge after different trimming configurations with 10% clearance were measured.
Technical Paper

Effect of Threaded Fastener Condition on Low Cycle Fatigue Failures in Metric Bolts Under Transverse Loading

2008-04-14
2008-01-0700
This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effect of threaded fastener condition on the low cycle fatigue behavior of a tightened metric fastener under a fully reversed, cyclic transverse load. The test set-up subjects tightened, threaded fasteners to the combined effect of axial, torsional, bending, and transverse shear loading. The two conditions of the fasteners were “as received” and “ultrasonically cleaned and oiled”. Fatigue performance at three different bolt tension levels was investigated. Based on preliminary testing arbitrarily selected amplitude of 0.05 inches was used for the cyclic transverse displacement, at a frequency of 10 Hz. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to assess the failure mode on a bolt fracture surface. The bolt stresses are sensitive to both thread and under head friction characteristics.
Technical Paper

Effect of Material Microstructure on Scuffing Behavior of Ferrous Alloys

2011-04-12
2011-01-1091
Scuffing is one of the major problems that influence the life cycle and reliability of several auto components, including engine cylinder kits, flywheels, camshafts, crankshafts, and gears. Ferrous casting materials, such as gray cast iron, ductile cast iron and austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) are widely applied in these components due to their self-lubricating characteristics. The purpose of this research is to determine the scuffing behavior of these three types of cast iron materials and compare them with 1050 steel. Rotational ball-on-disc tests were conducted with white mineral oil as the lubricant under variable sliding speeds and loads. The results indicate that the scuffing initiation is due to either crack propagation or plastic deformation. It is found that ADI exhibits the highest scuffing resistance among these materials.
Technical Paper

Austempering Process for Carburized Low Alloy Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-0949
There is a continual need to apply heat treatment processes in innovative ways to optimize material performance. One such application studied in this research is carburizing followed by austempering of low carbon alloy steels, AISI 8620, AISI 8822 and AISI 4320, to produce components with high strength and toughness. This heat treatment process was applied in two steps; first, carburization of the surface of the parts, second, the samples were quenched from austenitic temperature at a rate fast enough to avoid the formation of ferrite or pearlite and then held at a temperature just above the martensite starting temperature to partially or fully form bainite. Any austenite which was not transformed during austempering, upon further cooling formed martensite or was present as retained austenite.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Analysis of Improved Mechanical Properties Achieved During the Tempering of Parking Gears

2009-04-20
2009-01-0419
Automotive parking gears were tempered using three different tempering processes with a motive of determining the best tempering processes in terms of the properties of the heat treated samples. The three tempering processes compared in this study are Induction temper, Furnace temper and Magnetic core-flux temper. Torsion tests, Residual Stress tests and metallurgical analysis were done on the samples that were induction heat-treated and then tempered using one of the above mentioned three tempering processes. The resultant test data was used to draw conclusions on the performance of the tempering processes.
Technical Paper

A Mesoscopic-Stress Based Fatigue Limit Theory - A Revised Dang Van's Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0902
Dang Van (Dang Van et al., 1982 and Dang Van, 1993) states that for an infinite lifetime (near fatigue limit), crack nucleation in slip bands may occur at the most unfavorable oriented grains, which are subject to plastic deformation even if the macroscopic stress is elastic. Since the residual stresses in these plastically deformed grains are induced by the restraining effect of the adjacent grains, it is assumed that the residual stresses are stabilized at a mesoscopic level. These stresses are currently approximated by the macroscopic hydrostatic stress defined by the normal stresses to the faces of an octahedral element oriented with the faces symmetric to the principal axis; mathematically they are equal to each other and they are the average of the principal stresses.
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