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Technical Paper

Tribological and Metallurgical Properties of Nitrided AISI 4340 Steel

2014-04-01
2014-01-0959
Nitridng usually improves wear resistance and can be accomplished using a gas or plasma method; it's necessary to find if there is any difference in surface roughness, wear and/or wear mechanism when choosing between methods for nitriding. In this study, Ball-on-disk wear test was compared on coupons nitrided with five different nitriding cycles that processed at temperatures of 500-570°C, with a processing time of 8 - 80 hrs. Different compound layer thicknesses were formed, (5-8μm), and a minimum of 0.38 mm case depth was produced. Nitrided samples were also compared to nitrocarburized and the nitrided coupons with a “0” compound layer in a ball-on-disk test. Few selected coupons were post-polished and wear test on ball-on-disk test was compared with the coupons without post polishing. Optical surface roughness using White Light Interferometry (WLIM) and metallurgical testing was performed.
Journal Article

Tribological Performance of ZnO-Oil Nanofluids at Elevated Temperatures

2013-04-08
2013-01-1219
The tribological performance of nanofluids consisting of ZnO nanoparticles dispersed with a stabilizer in an API Group III oil was investigated. Recent research suggests that these fluids may reduce friction and wear compared to the base oil when used as a lubricant in metal-on-metal tests. The effects of nanoparticle concentration and test temperature on friction and wear were studied. Tests were run at 50°C and 100°C to investigate the viability of the fluids at elevated temperatures because possible applications include use as engine lubricants. Nanofluids showed friction reduction of up to 5.2% and reduced wear by up to 82.8% versus oil with only stabilizer at the highest ZnO concentration and the lowest temperature. Stabilizer increased wear at every concentration, but did not affect friction significantly. Fluid viscosity was also investigated. At 30°C, significant shear-thinning behavior was observed for the 2% ZnO solution, and a viscosity versus shear rate curve was found.
Technical Paper

The Research on Edge Tearing with Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0593
Material formability is a very important aspect in the automotive stamping, which must be tested for the success of manufacturing. One of the most important sheet metal formability parameters for the stamping is the edge tear-ability. In this paper, a novel test method has been present to test the aluminum sheet edge tear-ability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. The newly developed test specimen and fixture design are also presented. In order to capture the edge deformation and strain, sample's edge surface has been sprayed with artificial speckle. A standard MTS tensile machine was used to record the tearing load and displacement. Through the data processing and evaluation of sequence image, testing results are found valid and reliable. The results show that the 3D DIC system with double CCD can effectively carry out sheet edge tear deformation. The edge tearing test method is found to be a simple, reliable, high precision, and able to provide useful results.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Edge Quality on Edge Stretching Limit for Aluminum Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0416
This paper presents the measurement and analysis of the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy using digital image correlation. The edge stretching limit, also known as the “edge thinning limit,” is the maximum thinning strain at a point of edge failure resulting from tension; which may be predisposed by edge quality. Edge fracture is a vital failure mode in sheet metal forming, however it is very difficult to measure. A previous study enabled the measurement of edge thinning strain by using advanced digital image correlation but it did not consider how the edge quality could affect the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy. This paper continues to measure edge thinning strain by comparing polished to unpolished AA5754, thus determining the effect edge quality has on the edge stretching limit. To enable the measurement by optical method for a very long and thin sample, a notch is used to localize where edge failure occurs.
Technical Paper

Test of Inclined Double Beads on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1221
Draw beads are widely used in the binder of a draw die for regulating the restraining force and control the draw-in of a metal blank. Different sheet materials and local panel geometry request different local draw bead configurations. Even the majority of draw bead is single draw bead, the alternative double draw bead does have its advantages, such as less bending damage may be brought to the sheet material and more bead geometry features available to work on. In this paper, to measure the pulling force when a piece of sheet metal passing through a draw bead on an inclined binder, the AA5XXX and AA6XXX materials were tested and its strain were measured with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. Five different types of double bead configurations were tested. The beads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device. The clearance between a male and a female bead is 10% thicker than the sheet material. A tensile machine was used to record the pulling force.
Technical Paper

Tensile Test for Polymer Plastics with Extreme Large Elongation Using Quad-Camera Digital Image Correlation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0418
Polymer plastics are widely used in automotive light weight design. Tensile tests are generally used to obtain material stress-strain curves. Due to the natural of the plastic materials, it could be elongated more than several hundred percent of its original length before breaking. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Analysis is a precise, full field, optical measurement method. It has been accepted as a practical in-field testing method by the industry. However, with the traditional single-camera or dual-camera DIC system, it is nearly impossible to measure the extreme large strain. This paper introduces a unique experimental procedure for large elongation measurement. By utilization of quad-camera DIC system and data stitch technique, the strain history for plastic material under hundreds percent of elongation can be measured. With a quad-camera DIC system, the correlation was conducted between two adjacent cameras.
Technical Paper

Surface Quality Inspection for Vehicle Front Panel Using Polarized Laser Inspection Method

2017-03-28
2017-01-0395
Vehicle front panel is an interior part which has a major impact on the consumers’ experience of the vehicles. To keep a good appearance during long time aging period, most of the front panel is designed as a rough surface. Some types of surface defects on the rough surface can only be observed under the exposure of certain angled sun light. This brings great difficulties in finding surface defects on the production line. This paper introduces a novel polarized laser light based surface quality inspection method for the rough surfaces on the vehicle front panel. By using the novel surface quality inspection system, the surface defects can be detected real-timely even without the exposure under certain angled sun light. The optical fundamentals, theory derivation, experiment setup and testing result are shown in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

Study of Ausferrite Transformation Kinetics for Austempered Ductile Irons with and without Ni

2016-04-05
2016-01-0421
This research studies the transformation kinetics of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with and without nickel as the main alloying element. ADI has improved mechanical properties compared to ductile iron due to its ausferrite microstructure. Not only can austempered ductile iron be produced with high strength, high toughness and high wear resistance, the ductility of ADI can also be increased due to high carbon content austenite. Many factors influence the transformation of phases in ADI. In the present work, the addition of nickel was investigated based on transformation kinetics and metallography observation. The transformation fractions were determined by Rockwell hardness variations of ADI specimens. The calculation of transformation kinetics and activation energy using the “Avrami Equation” and “Arrhenius Equation” is done to describe effects of nickel alloy for phase reactions.
Technical Paper

Sheared Edge Stretchability of Steels Suitable for Automotive Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1708
In recent years, dual phase (DP) Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) are considered as prominent materials in the automotive industry due to superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials are often sensitive to trimmed edge cracking if stretching along sheared edge occurs in such processes as stretch flanging. Another major issue in the trimming of UHSS is tool wear because of higher contact pressures at the interface between cutting tools and sheet metal blank caused by UHSS’s higher flow stresses and the presence of a hard martensitic phase in the microstructure. The objective of the current paper is to study the influence of trimming conditions and tool wear on quality and stretchability of trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheet. For this purpose, mechanically trimmed edges were characterized for DP980 steel and compared with other steels such as HSLA 350 and BH210.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Study of Probit and Two-Point Fatigue Testing Methods

2006-04-03
2006-01-0536
Fatigue strength mean and standard deviation may be estimated by the Probit and 2-Point test methods. In this paper, methodologies for conducting the tests are developed and results from Monte Carlo simulation are presented. The results are compared with those from concurrent testing with the staircase method. While the Probit and 2-Point methods are intuitively attractive, their results are significantly different from those from the staircase method. The latter remains the best of the three.
Technical Paper

Research on Shear Test of New Style Automotive Structural Adhesive

2014-04-01
2014-01-0828
In this paper, Digital Image Correlation Method (DICM) is employed to measure the shear mechanical property of the new style automotive structural adhesive specimens and traditional spot welded specimens under quasi static uniaxial shear tensile test. This experiment adopts a non-contact measuring method to measure the strain of specimens. A CCD and a computer image processing system are used to capture and record the real-time surface images of the specimens before and after deformation. Digital correlation software is used to process the imagines before and after deformation to obtain the specimen's strain of the moment. And then both the force-displacement curve and the stress-strain curve during the tensile process could be obtained. The test and analysis results show that the new style structural adhesive specimens have a great advantage with the spot welded specimens. It provides experimental evidence for further improvement of this structural adhesive.
Journal Article

Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1007
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution.
Technical Paper

Property and Fiber Orientation Determination for Carbon Fiber Composite

2018-04-03
2018-01-1216
Unexpected severe failures occur during the warm forming procedure of carbon fiber material due to the existence of extremely large deformation/strain. To evaluate this failure, a good understanding the accurate material property under certain loading is important to evaluate the forming feasibility of carbon fiber material. Also, a clear connection between the fiber orientation and the material property helps to increase the accuracy of the forming prediction. Therefore, an experimental test is needed to evaluate the material property as well as the fiber orientation. In this paper, a uniaxial tension test for the prepreg carbon fiber under the warm forming condition is performed. A halogen lamp is used to heat the specimen to reach the warm forming condition. A 3D Digital Image Correlation (3D-DIC) is utilized to measure the material property and the fiber orientation in this test, along with a DIP system.
Technical Paper

Optimal Engine Torque Management for Reducing Driveline Clunk Using Time - Dependent Metamodels

2007-05-15
2007-01-2236
Quality and performance are two important customer requirements in vehicle design. Driveline clunk negatively affects the perceived quality and must be therefore, minimized. This is usually achieved using engine torque management, which is part of engine calibration. During a tip-in event, the engine torque rate of rise is limited until all the driveline lash is taken up. However, the engine torque rise, and its rate can negatively affect the vehicle throttle response. Therefore, the engine torque management must be balanced against throttle response. In practice, the engine torque rate of rise is calibrated manually. This paper describes a methodology for calibrating the engine torque in order to minimize the clunk disturbance, while still meeting throttle response constraints. A set of predetermined engine torque profiles are calibrated in a vehicle and the transmission turbine speed is measured for each profile. The latter is used to quantify the clunk disturbance.
Technical Paper

Optical Measurement of Residual Stress at the Deep-Rolled Crankshaft Fillet

2004-03-08
2004-01-1500
Crankshaft fillet is subjected to a cyclic bending stress during operation. Fatigue cracks are observed at the fillet during the fatigue test. Compressive stresses are generated by deep-rolling process in order to increase the surface hardness and improve the fatigue strength. To examine the deep-rolling effect, the residual stresses at the fillet need to be investigated. Incremental hole drilling and ISSR (interferometric strain/slope rosette) method is applied to measure the residual stresses at the bottom of the fillet. Incremental hole drilling process is to gradually remove material and mill a hole on the specimen surface in order to relax stress. The ISSR is composed of three micro-indentations, which are indented near the hole and would generate interferometric fringe patterns upon incident laser beam. With incremental drilling, stress relaxation causes the relieved strains, which in turn cause the shifts of interferometric patterns.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Spark Plug Orientation Effects on Flame Kernel Growth

2019-01-15
2019-01-0005
Spark plug design is critical for the performance of spark ignited (SI) engines, however, its orientation is frequently not controlled for most of production engines, which has great impacts on ignition and subsequent flame propagation processes. In the present work, a recently developed comprehensive ignition system model--the VTF ignition model, has been employed to investigate the effects of spark plug orientation on ignition and flame kernel growth. Three orientations for the spark plug, including downstream, crossflow, and upstream relative to the flow, have been considered under a typical a high-speed high-load condition in a GDI engine. Electrical circuitry model was validated by comparing the simulation results with measured secondary current and secondary voltage with good agreement.
Technical Paper

Non-Destructive Evaluation of Spot Weld Using Digital Shearography

2005-04-11
2005-01-0491
Spot Welding is now widely used in the fabrication of sheet metals, mainly due to the cost and time considerations. Spot welds are found in nearly all products where sheet metal is joined. Examples range from a single metal toolbox to nearly 10,000 spot welds found in a typical passenger car. Obviously the quality of the spot weld has a direct impact on the quality of the product. The problem of estimating the spot-weld quality is an important component in quality control. If the weld nuggets are improperly or incompletely formed, or the area surrounding the nugget is smaller than required, the structural integrity of the entire part may be uncertain. Furthermore these inconsistencies are usually internal and are seldom visible to Optical Inspection. This study is focused on the non-destructive evaluation of the spot welds using “Digital Shearography”.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0835
Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Journal Article

Microstructural Contact Mechanics Finite Element Modeling Used to Study the Effect of Coating Induced Residual Stresses on Bearing Failure Mechanisms

2014-04-01
2014-01-1018
Coatings have the potential to improve bearing tribological performance. However, every coating application process and material combination may create different residual stresses and coating microstructures, and their effect on bearing fatigue and wear performance is unclear. The aim of this work is to investigate coating induced residual stress effects on bearing failure indicators using a microstructural contact mechanics (MSCM) finite element (FE) model. The MSCM FE model consists of a two-dimensional FE model of a coated bearing surface under sliding contact where individual grains are represented by FE domains. Interactions between FE domains are represented using contact element pairs. Unique to this layered rolling contact FE model is the use of polycrystalline material models to represent realistic bearing and coating microstructural behavior. The MSCM FE model was compared to a second non-microstructural contact mechanics (non-MSCM) model.
Journal Article

Long Life Axial Fatigue Strength Models for Ferrous Powder Metals

2018-04-03
2018-01-1395
Two models are presented for the long life (107 cycles) axial fatigue strength of four ferrous powder metal (PM) material series: sintered and heat-treated iron-carbon steel, iron-copper and copper steel, iron-nickel and nickel steel, and pre-alloyed steel. The materials are defined at ranges of carbon content and densities using the broad data available in the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) Standard 35 for PM structural parts. The first model evaluates 107 cycles axial fatigue strength as a function of ultimate strength and the second model as a function of hardness. For all 118 studied materials, both models are found to have a good correlation between calculated and 107 cycles axial fatigue strength with a high Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97. The article provides details on the model development and the reasoning for selecting the ultimate strength and hardness as the best predictors for 107 cycles axial fatigue strength.
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