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Technical Paper

Validation of a Roll Simulator for Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles

A two-degree-of-freedom Roll Simulator has been developed to study the occupant kinematics of Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles (ROVs). To validate the roll simulator, test data was collected on a population of ROVs on the market today. J-turn maneuvers were performed to find the minimum energy limits required to tip up the vehicles. Two sets of tests were performed: for the first set, 10 vehicles were tested, where the motion was limited by safety outriggers to 10-15 degrees of roll; and for the second set, three of these vehicles were re-tested with outriggers removed and the vehicle motion allowed to reach 90 degrees of roll. These quarter-turn rollover tests were performed autonomously using an Automatic Steering Controller (ASC) and a Brake and Throttle Robot (BTR). Lateral and longitudinal accelerations as well as roll rate and roll angle were recorded for all tests.
Technical Paper

Validation and Enhancement of a Heavy Truck Simulation Model with an Electronic Stability Control Model

Validation was performed on an existing heavy truck vehicle dynamics computer model with roll stability control (RSC). The first stage in this validation was to compare the response of the simulated tractor to that of the experimental tractor. By looking at the steady-state gains of the tractor, adjustments were made to the model to more closely match the experimental results. These adjustments included suspension and steering compliances, as well as auxiliary roll moment modifications. Once the validation of the truck tractor was completed for the current configuration, the existing 53-foot box trailer model was added to the vehicle model. The next stage in experimental validation for the current tractor-trailer model was to incorporate suspension compliances and modify the auxiliary roll stiffness to more closely model the experimental response of the vehicle. The final validation stage was to implement some minor modifications to the existing RSC model.
Technical Paper

Validation Results from Using NADSdyna Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

This paper presents an evaluation of a vehicle dynamics model intended to be used for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). Dynamic validation for high performance simulation is not merely a comparison between experimental and simulation plots. It involves strong insight of vehicle's subsystems mechanics, limitations of the mathematical formulations, and experimental predictions. Lateral, longitudinal, and ride dynamics are evaluated using field test data, and analytical diagnostics. The evaluation includes linear and non-linear range of vehicle dynamics response.
Technical Paper

Tractor-Semitrailer Stability Following a Steer Axle Tire Blowout at Speed and Comparison to Computer Simulation Models

This paper documents the vehicle response of a tractor-semitrailer following a sudden air loss (Blowout) in a steer axle tire while traveling at highway speeds. The study seeks to compare full-scale test data to predicted response from detailed heavy truck computer vehicle dynamics simulation models. Full-scale testing of a tractor-semitrailer experiencing a sudden failure of a steer axle tire was conducted. Vehicle handling parameters were recorded by on-board computers leading up to and immediately following the sudden air loss. Inertial parameters (roll, yaw, pitch, and accelerations) were measured and recorded for the tractor and semitrailer, along with lateral and longitudinal speeds. Steering wheel angle was also recorded. These data are presented and also compared to the results of computer simulation models. The first simulation model, SImulation MOdel Non-linear (SIMON), is a vehicle dynamic simulation model within the Human Vehicle Environment (HVE) software environment.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Using Combined Hardening Model

The main objective of this paper is to simulate the springback using combined kinematic/isotropic hardening model. Material parameters in the hardening model are identified by an inverse method. Three-point bending test is conducted on 6022-T4 aluminum sheet. Punch stroke, punch load, bending strain and bending angle are measured directly during the tests. Bending moments are then computed from these measured data. Bending moments are also calculated based on a constitutive model. Material parameters are identified by minimizing the normalized error between two bending moments. Micro genetic algorithm is used in the optimization procedure. Stress-strain curves is generated with the material parameters found in this way, which can be used with other plastic models. ABAQUS/Standard 5.8, which has the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model, is used to simulate draw-bend of 6022-T4 series aluminum sheet. Absolute springback angles are predicted very accurately.
Technical Paper

Spinal Cord Injuries to Children in Real World Accidents

In the last twelve years, the overwhelming effectiveness of restraining children in the United States, Canada and Europe has been proven in reducing death and injury in automobile accidents. Despite the proven benefits of restraining children, one type of injury has not been prevented. This paper is an analysis of stretch injuries to the spinal cord in the upper thoracic or cervical spine. This paper discusses, in general, spinal cord injuries from a biomechanical point of view. The relationship between various loading conditions and the resulting types of spinal cord injuries is discussed. This paper also examines seven real world automobile accidents. Information for each case includes: vehicles involved, type of roadway, crash Delta-V, occupant direction of motion, restraint type, injuries to occupants, and anthropometry of child with spinal cord injury. A description and location of each spinal cord injury that occurred at the time of the accident is discussed.
Technical Paper

Soil Compaction of Four-Wheel Drive and Tracked Tractors Under Various Draft Loads

The soil response to traffic loads as affected by tire inflation pressure, track width and drawbar pull was measured. The change in soil physical properties caused by a John Deere 8870 tractor at two tire pressure settings and CATERPILLAR Challenger 65 and 75 tractors with 64 and 89 cm wide belt tracks, were measured at two load levels; no draft (tractor only) and tractor pulling a 12.5 m field cultivator. The Ohio State University Soil Physical Properties Measurement System was used to measure cone penetration resistance, air permeability, air-filled porosity, and bulk density. The results show the dual overinflated tires caused the greatest change, followed by the CATERPILLAR Challenger 65 track, then the CATERPILLAR Challenger 75 track, and finally dual correctly inflated tires caused the least effect on soil physical properties. These results were consistent at each depth. The effects of the two draft levels give the same ranking of the tractive units.
Technical Paper

Size, Weight and Biomechanical Impact Response Requirements for Adult Size Small Female and Large Male Dummies

This paper summarizes the rationale used to specify the geometric, inertial and impact response requirements for a small adult female dummy and a large adult male dummy with impact biofidelity and measurement capacity comparable to the Hybrid III dummy, the most advanced midsize adult male dummy. Body segment lengths and weights for these two dummies were based on the latest anthropometry studies for the extremes of the U.S.A. adult population. Other characteristic body segment dimensions were calculated from geometric and mass scaling relationships that assured that each body segment had the same mass density as the corresponding body segment of the Hybrid III dummy. The biomechanical impact response requirements for the head, neck, chest and knee of the Hybrid III dummy were scaled to give corresponding biomechanical impact response requirements for each dummy.
Technical Paper

Simulation Results from a Model of a Tractor Trailer Vehicle Equipped with Roll Stability Control

In 2007, a software model of a Roll Stability Control (RSC) system was developed based on test data for a Volvo tractor at NHTSA's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC). This model was designed to simulate the RSC performance of a commercially available Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system. The RSC model was developed in Simulink and integrated with the available braking model (TruckSim) for the truck. The Simulink models were run in parallel with the vehicle dynamics model of a truck in TruckSim. The complete vehicle model including the RSC system model is used to simulate the behavior of the actual truck and determine the capability of the RSC system in preventing rollovers under different conditions. Several simulations were performed to study the behavior of the model developed and to compare its performance with that of an actual test vehicle equipped with RSC.
Technical Paper

Self-Tuning Optimal Control of an Active Suspension

The objective of this paper is to develop a self-tuning optimal control of an active suspension. An active suspension composed of an identifier and a controller is proposed in this paper. Although control strategies on active (or semi-active) suspensions have been investigated during the past few decades, some problems are not well understood yet. One of them arising from the ride control of an active suspension is that when the weight and the moments of inertia of the sprung mass are varied, the feedback gains of the controller should vary with the variation of parameters accordingly. Therefore, the identifier is proposed before the controller is designed. In the real situations, the parameter variation may occur when loadings on vehicles vary - either from passengers or payloads, especially, in the case of loading on a truck. An identification structure using parallel model reference adaptive system (MRAS) is proposed to identify the true parameters.
Journal Article

Model Based Engine Control Development and Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for the EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Competition

When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
Technical Paper

Measured Vehicle Center-of-Gravity Locations - Including NHTSA's Data Through 2008 NCAP

This paper is a printed listing of public domain vehicle center-of-gravity (CG) location measurements conducted on behalf of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This paper is an extension of the 1999 SAE paper titled “Measured Vehicle Inertia Parameters - NHTSA's Data Through November 1998” ( 1 ). The previous paper contained data for 496 vehicles. This paper includes data for 528 additional vehicles tested as part of NHTSA's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) for year 2001 through year 2008 ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). The previous data included center-of-gravity location and mass moments-of-inertia for nearly all of the entries. The NCAP involves only the CG location measurements; so the vehicles listed in this paper do not have inertia data. This paper provides a brief discussion of the entries provided in the tabular listings as well as the accuracy of CG height measurements.
Journal Article

Integration of a Torsional Stiffness Model into an Existing Heavy Truck Vehicle Dynamics Model

Torsional stiffness properties were developed for both a 53-foot box trailer and a 28-foot flatbed control trailer based on experimental measurements. In order to study the effect of torsional stiffness on the dynamics of a heavy truck vehicle dynamics computer model, static maneuvers were conducted comparing different torsional stiffness values to the original rigid vehicle model. Stiffness properties were first developed for a truck tractor model. It was found that the incorporation of a torsional stiffness model had only a minor effect on the overall tractor response for steady-state maneuvers up to 0.4 g lateral acceleration. The effect of torsional stiffness was also studied for the trailer portion of the existing model.
Technical Paper

Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System: Linking On- and Off-Board Diagnostic Strategies

A number of automotive diagnostic equipment and procedures have evolved over the last two decades, leading to two generations of on-board diagnostic requirements (OBDI and OBDII), increasing the number of components and systems to be monitored by the diagnostic tools. The goal of On-Board Diagnostic is to alert the driver to the presence of a malfunction of the emission control system, and to identify the location of the problem in order to assist mechanics in properly performing repairs. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology for the development of an Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System (EPDS) that can combine the information supplied by conventional tailpipe inspection programs with onboard diagnostics to provide fast and reliable diagnosis of malfunctions.
Technical Paper

Inconsistencies in State Laws and Federal Regulations Regarding Child Restraint Use in Automobiles

All fifty states and the District of Columbia have laws requiring children under specified ages to be restrained in an infant restraint system, a toddler restraint system, or an adult seat belt. The child restraint systems are regulated through Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 2 13 Child Restraint Systems. The adult seat belts are regulated through FMVSS 208, Occupant Crash Protection, FMVSS 209. Seat Belt Assemblies, and FMVSS 210. Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages. The combination of differing laws for the fifty states and the District of Columbia, four “rather ambiguous” federal regulations, and recommendations on child restraint and seat belt usage by various safety-conscious groups in the private sector, as well as various foreign countries leads to total stupefaction. This paper outlines and discusses state laws, federal standards and private sector recommendations. The paper also analyzes the interaction between children and adult 2- and 3-point belts in automobiles.
Technical Paper

Generator Voltage Regulation Through Current Control in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A novel approach to control the output voltage of the generator on a hybrid electric vehicle is proposed in this paper. In addition to the voltage control, for safety reason, it is desirable to control the current of the generator when the machine is running. In order to control the current, the reference voltage is translated to reference current by an estimator. Then current convergence is ensured by controlling the excitation voltage. Thus the over-current is prevented in the system. The rate of convergence of the voltage tracking is discussed. Robustness of the control algorithm against parameter variation is also analyzed and compared with conventional approach. Simulation results show that the safety objective is achieved without sacrificing output performance of the generator.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Child Restraint Devices Using Computer Animation

A technique has been developed to study the effects of the vehicle interior on the performance of child safety seats. Child safety seat sled tests are used to define the kinematics of the seat and child in a crash situation. Computer animation of this motion is superimposed on the motion of the actual vehicle crash tests giving an estimation of the kinematics of the child and child seat in a real crash situation. The significance of the vehicle interior and the interference of the vehicle interior with the child's kinematics is presented within the computer animation. The analysis is conducted using a single child restraint device in multiple seating conditions within a single vehicle.
Technical Paper

Establishing Occupant Response Metrics on a Roll Simulator

This paper presents the results of an in-depth study of the measurement of occupant kinematic response on the S-E-A Roll Simulator. This roll simulator was built to provide an accurate and repeatable test procedure for the evaluation of occupant protection and restraint systems during roll events within a variety of occupant compartments. In the present work this roll simulator was utilized for minimum-energy, or threshold type, rollover events of recreational off-highway vehicles (ROVs). Input profiles for these tests were obtained through a separate study involving autonomous full vehicle tests [1]. During simulated roll events anthropomorphic test device (ATD) responses were measured using on-board high speed video, an optical three-dimensional motion capture system (OCMS) and an array of string potentiometers.
Technical Paper

Empirical-Numerical Simulation Technique for Improving the Quality of Rolled Rods by Roll Pass Design

Improper roll pass designs can lead to either underfill which results in the formation of hairline cracks on the surface of the finished bars or overfill which results in roll overloading and the formation of fins. Therefore to reduce downtime, and improve yield and quality, it becomes important to design an acceptable roll pass in reasonable time. This paper presents a methodology for roll pass design which uses a three dimensional finite element technique along with an empirical procedure to arrive at an iterative scheme for reducing the number of passes and improving metal flow in the passes. This methodology is applied to improving an existing seven pass square - to - round rolling sequence, resulting in the reduction of the number of passes and improved distributions of effective strains in the rolled product.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of Layshaft Gears in Automotive Transmission

In this paper, we will present parametric results of performing dynamic analysis of layshaft gear trains typically used in automotive transmissions with emphasis on the vibratory response due to transmission error excitation. A three-dimensional multiple degrees of freedom lumped parameter dynamic model of a generic layshaft type geared rotor system (with three parallel rotating shafts coupled by two sets of gear pairs) has been formulated analytically. The model includes the effects of both rotational and translational displacements of each gears, and bounce and pitch motions of the counter-shaft. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are computed numerically by solving an eigenvalue problem derived from applying harmonic solutions to the equations of motion. The complete set of mode shapes are then used in forced response calculations based on the modal expansion method to predict gear accelerations, dynamic transmission errors, mesh force and bearing loads.