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Technical Paper

Water-Gas-Shift Catalyst Development and Optimization for a D-EGR® Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1968
Dedicated Exhaust Gas Recirculation (D-EGR®) technology provides a novel means for fuel efficiency improvement through efficient, on-board generation of H2 and CO reformate [1, 2]. In the simplest form of the D-EGR configuration, reformate is produced in-cylinder through rich combustion of the gasoline-air charge mixture. It is also possible to produce more H2 by means of a Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst, thereby resulting in further combustion improvements and overall fuel consumption reduction. In industrial applications, the WGS reaction has been used successfully for many years. Previous engine applications of this technology, however, have only proven successful to a limited degree. The motivation for this work was to develop and optimize a WGS catalyst which can be employed to a D-EGR configuration of an internal combustion engine. This study consists of two parts.
Technical Paper

Validation Method for Diesel Particulate Filter Durability

2007-10-29
2007-01-4086
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a critical aftertreatment device for control of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine. DPF survivability is challenged by several key factors such as: excessive thermal stress due to DPF runaway regenerations (or uncontrolled regeneration) may cause DPF substrate and washcoat failure. Catalyst poisoning elements from the diesel fuel and engine oil may cause performance degradation of the catalyzed DPF. Harsh vibration from the powertrain, as well as from the road surface, may lead to mechanical failure of the substrate and/or the matting material. Evaluations of these important validation parameters were performed.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Efficiency from an On-Highway Natural Gas Engine

1998-05-04
981394
Results from work focusing on the development of an ultra low emissions, high efficiency, natural gas-fueled heavy- duty engine are discussed in this paper. The engine under development was based on a John Deere 8.1L engine; this engine was significantly modified from its production configuration during the course of an engine optimization program funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Previous steady-state testing indicated that the modified engine would provide simultaneous reductions in nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption while maintaining equivalent or lower NOx levels. Federal Test Procedure transient tests confirmed these expectations. Very low NOx emissions, averaging 1.0 g/bhp-hr over hot-start cycles, were attained; at these conditions, reductions in engine-out nonmethane hydro-carbons emissions (NMHC) were approximately 30 percent, and fuel consumption over the cycle was also reduced relative to the baseline.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology to Measure Real-Time Wear in Engines and Other Mechanical Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1437
Radioactive tracer technology (RATT™) is an important tool for measuring real-time wear in operating engines and other mechanical systems. The use of this technology provides important wear information that is not available by other, more conventional wear measurement methods. The technology has advanced to the point where several components can be interrogated simultaneously, and new methods have extended the method to materials that are normally not amenable to radioactive tracer evaluation. In addition, sensitivity has increased so that the onset of wear can be detected long before practical with non-tracer methods. This improves the ability to measure and determine cause and effect relationships, thus providing a better understanding of wear responses to specific operating conditions and to changes in operating conditions. This paper reviews the radioactive tracer process and recent improvements that have extended its reach in both automotive and non-automotive applications.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 4: Fuel Consumption, Emissions, and Cost-Effectiveness of an Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Compared to Conventional Diesel Fuels

2005-04-11
2005-01-1724
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an ultra-low-sulfur, low aromatic, high cetane number diesel fuel (TxLED, Texas Low Emission Diesel) in June 2003. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness to reduce emissions and influence fuel economy of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel used in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Association of General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel in their equipment. One off-road engine, two single-axle dump trucks, and two tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included newer electronically-controlled diesels. The off-road engine was tested over the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle or the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 2: Comparisons of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for a Fuel/Water Emulsion and Conventional Diesel Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0087
The Texas Department of Transportation began using an emulsified diesel fuel in 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel and 2D off-road diesel. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsion, Lubrizol PuriNOx®, relative to conventional diesel fuels. Two engines and eight trucks, four single-axle dump trucks, and four tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included both older mechanically-controlled diesels and newer electronically-controlled diesels. The two engines were tested over two different cycles that were developed specifically for this project. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over one or the other of two chassis dynamometer cycles that were developed for this project In addition to fuel efficiency, emissions of NOx, PM, CO, and HCs were measured. Additionally, second-by-second results were obtained for NOx and HCs.
Technical Paper

The Potential for Achieving Low Hydrocarbon and NOx Exhaust Emissions from Large Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1261
Two large, heavy light-duty gasoline vehicles (2004 model year Ford F-150 with a 5.4 liter V8 and GMC Yukon Denali with a 6.0 liter V8) were baselined for emission performance over the FTP driving cycle in their stock configurations. Advanced emission systems were designed for both vehicles employing advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density ceramic substrates, and advanced exhaust system components. These advanced emission systems were integrated on the test vehicles and characterized for low mileage emission performance on the FTP cycle using the vehicle's stock engine calibration and, in the case of the Denali, after modifying the vehicle's stock engine calibration for improved cold-start and hot-start emission performance.
Technical Paper

The New BAIC High Efficiency Turbocharged Engine with LPL-EGR

2017-10-08
2017-01-2414
The new Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC) engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance of high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulations. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers. Cooled LPL-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently allowed for increased compression ratio and improved thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped increase low-speed torque. Additionally, the intake and exhaust systems were improved along with optimization of the combustion chamber design.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Biodiesel Fuels on Transient Emissions from Modern Diesel Engines, Part I Regulated Emissions and Performance

2000-06-19
2000-01-1967
The use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as a substitute for conventional petroleum fuel in diesel engines has received increased attention. This interest is based on a number of properties of biodiesel including the fact that it is produced from a renewable resource, its biodegradability, and its potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Transient exhaust emissions from three modern diesel engines were measured during this study, both with and without an oxidation catalyst. Emissions were characterized with neat biodiesel and with a blend of biodiesel and conventional diesel fuel. Regulated emissions and performance data are presented in this paper, while the results of a detailed chemical characterization of exhaust emissions are presented in a companion paper. The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter, with some increase in emissions of oxides of nitrogen on some engines.
Technical Paper

The Development of the Pumpless Gas Engine Concept

1970-02-01
700073
The major events in the development of a “pumpless” gas engine concept are related. The immediate objective of the subject program was to develop a combustion system for natural gas fueled engines which, when compared with conventional gas engines, would be operationally simpler and easier to maintain with no appreciable penalty in specific fuel consumption. The pumpless gas principle was successfully demonstrated on a single-cylinder, 2-cycle engine. The concept was then extended, with the aid of combustion photography, to a single-cylinder, 4-cycle laboratory engine. The feasibility of the concept was further demonstrated by the conversion of a commercially available 4-cycle, 4-cyl diesel engine.
Technical Paper

The Challenges of Developing an Energy, Emissions, and Fuel Economy Test Procedure for Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Transit Vehicles

1995-11-01
952610
Over twenty prototype hybrid buses and other commercial vehicles are currently being completed and deployed. These vehicles are primarily “series” hybrid vehicles which use electric motors for primary traction while internal combustion engines, or high-speed turbine engines connected to generators, supply some portion of the electric propulsion and battery recharge energy. Hybrid-electric vehicles have an electric energy storage system on board that influences the operation of the heat engine. The storage system design and level affect the vehicle emissions, electricity consumption, and fuel economy. Existing heavy-duty emissions test procedures require that the engine be tested over a transient cycle before it can be used in vehicles (over 26,000 lbs GVW). This paper describes current test procedures for assessing engine and vehicle emissions, and proposes techniques for evaluating engines used with hybrid-electric vehicle propulsion systems.
Technical Paper

Technology Demonstration of U.S. Army Ground Materiel Operating on Aviation Kerosene Fuel

1992-02-01
920193
A technology demonstration program was conducted by the U.S. Army to verify the feasibility of using aviation turbine fuel JP-8 in all military diesel fuel-consuming ground vehicles and equipment (V/E). Over 2,800 pieces of military equipment participated in a two and one-half year program accumulating over 2,621,000 total miles (4,219,810 km) using JP-8 in combat/tracked, tactical/wheeled, and transportation motor pool vehicles. Over 71,000 hours of operation were accumulated in diesel/turbine engine-driven generator sets using JP-8 fuel. Comparisons of various performance areas with baseline diesel fuel (DF-2) operation were made.
Technical Paper

Technical Advantages of Urea SCR for Light-Duty and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-1292
The 2007 emission standards for both light-duty and heavy-duty diesel vehicles remain a challenge. A level of about 90% NOx conversion is required to meet the standards. Technologies that have the most potential to achieve very high NOx conversion at low temperatures of diesel exhaust are lean NOx traps (LNTs) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx using aqueous urea, typically known as Urea SCR. The LNT has the advantage of requiring no new infrastructure, and does not pose any new customer compliance issues. However, Urea SCR has high and durable NOx conversion in a wider temperature window, a lower equivalent fuel penalty, and lower system cost. On a technical basis, Urea SCR has the best chance of meeting the 2007 NOx targets. This paper reviews the results of some demonstration programs for both light-and heavy-duty applications.
Journal Article

Synergies between High EGR Operation and GDI Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0134
A gasoline direct injection engine was operated at elevated EGR levels over a significant portion of the performance map. The engine was modified to use both cooled and un-cooled EGR in high pressure loop and low pressure loop configurations. The addition of EGR at low and part load was shown to decrease NO and CO emissions and to reduce fuel consumption by up to 4%, primarily through the reduction in pumping losses. At high loads, the addition of EGR resulted in higher fuel consumption benefits of 10-20% as well as the expected NO and CO reductions. The fuel economy benefit at high loads resulted from a decrease in knock tendency and a subsequent improvement in combustion phasing as well as reductions in exhaust temperatures that eliminated the requirement for over-fuelling.
Technical Paper

Solid Particle Number and Ash Emissions from Heavy-Duty Natural Gas and Diesel w/SCRF Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0362
Solid and metallic ash particle number (PN) and particulate matter (PM) mass emission measurements were performed on a heavy-duty (HD) on-highway diesel engine and a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. Measurements were conducted under transient engine operation that included the FTP, WHTC and RMC. Both engines were calibrated to meet CARB ultra low NOX emission target of 0.02 g/hp-hr, a 90% reduction from current emissions limit. The HD diesel engine final exhaust configuration included a number of aftertreatement sub-systems in addition to a selective catalytic reduction filter (SCRF). The stoichiometric CNG engine final configuration included a closed coupled Three Way Catalyst (ccTWC) and an under floor TWC (ufTWC). The aftertreatment systems for both engines were aged for a full useful life (FUL) of 435,000 miles, prior to emissions testing. PM mass emissions from both engines were comparable and well below the US EPA emissions standard.
Journal Article

Solid Particle Emissions from Vehicle Exhaust during Engine Start-Up

2015-04-14
2015-01-1077
Human exposure to vehicle exhaust during engine start-up can be encountered on a daily basis in parking lots, home garages, and vehicle stop/star traffic environment. This work is the first pilot study to characterize solid particle number and size distribution during engine start-up using various light-duty vehicles with different technology engines. A total of 84 vehicles were tested in this pilot study, consisting of post-2007 diesel engines equipped with high efficiency diesel particulate filters (DPFs) as well as modern gasoline port fuel injected (PFI) and gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines equipped with three-way-catalysts (TWCs). Particle concentration from DPF equipped diesel engines were found to be the lowest, while GDI and 8-cylinder PFI engines had the highest particle emissions.
Technical Paper

Soak Time Effects on Car Emissions and Fuel Economy

1978-02-01
780083
Five light-duty vehicles were used to investigate HC, CO, and NOx emissions and fuel economy sensitivity to changes in the length of soak period preceding the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Emission tests were conducted following soak periods 10 minutes to 36 hours in length. Each of the first 8 minutes of the driving cycle was studied separately to observe vehicle warm-up. Several engine and fuel system temperatures were monitored during soak and run periods and example trends are illustrated. The extent to which emission rates and fuel consumption are affected by soak period length is discussed.
Technical Paper

Scuderi Split Cycle Engine: Air Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain Simulation Study

2012-04-16
2012-01-1013
The Scuderi engine is a split cycle design that divides the four strokes of a conventional combustion cycle over two paired cylinders, one intake/compression cylinder and one power/exhaust cylinder, connected by a crossover port. This configuration provides potential benefits to the combustion process, as well as presenting some challenges; it also creates the possibility for pneumatic hybridization of the engine. This paper presents the methodology and results of a comprehensive study to investigate the benefits of air hybrid operation with the Scuderi Split Cycle (SSC) engine. Four air hybrid operating modes are made possible by the Split Cycle configuration, namely air compressor, air expander, air expander & firing and firing & charging. The predicted operating requirements for each individual operating mode are established. The air and fuel flow of the individual modes are fully mapped throughout the engine operating speed and load range and air tank pressure operating range.
Technical Paper

SCR System Optimization and Control Supported by Simulation Tools

2013-04-08
2013-01-1075
The successful design and especially the control of the SCR system is a challenging process that can be supported by the application of simulation tools. As a first step, we employ physico-chemically informed ‘off-line’ models that are calibrated with the help of targeted small- and full-scale tests. Despite their high level of sophistication, this SCR model is able to be integrated in a control-oriented simulation software platform and connected to other powertrain simulation blocks. The target is to use this simulation platform as a virtual environment for the development and optimization of SCR control strategies. The above process is demonstrated in the case of a passenger car SCR. The model is calibrated at both fresh and aged catalyst condition and validated using experimental data from the engine bench under a wide variety of operating conditions. Next, the calibrated model was coupled with embedded control models, developed for Euro 6 passenger car powertrains.
Video

SCR Deactivation Study for OBD Applications

2012-06-18
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines in a number of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI)® performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and an Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NOx timed response to ammonia (NH3) transients as a function of thermal aging time and temperature. It has been proposed that the response time of NOx emissions to NH3 transients, effected by changes in diesel emissions fluid (DEF) injection rate, could be used as an on-board diagnostic (OBD) metric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this OBD approach.
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