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Technical Paper

The Effects of Hydroforming on the Mechanical Properties and Crush Behaviors of Aluminum Tubes

2007-04-16
2007-01-0986
The effect of hydroforming on the mechanical properties and dynamic crush behaviors of tapered aluminum 6063-T4 tubes with octagonal cross section are investigated by experiments. First, the thickness profile of the hydroformed tube is measured by non-destructive examination technique using ultrasonic thickness gauge. The effect of hydroforming on the mechanical properties of the tube is investigated by quasi-static tensile tests of specimens prepared from different regions of the tube based on the thickness profile. The effect of hydroforming on the dynamic crush behaviors of the tube is investigated by axial crush tests under dynamic loads. Specimens and tubes are tested in two different heat treatment conditions: hydroformed-T4 (as-received) and T6. The results of the quasi-static tensile tests for the specimens in hydroformed-T4 condition show different amounts of work hardening depending on the regions, which the specimens are prepared from.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Failure Prediction for Automotive Windshields Based on Strength and Flaw Distributions

2000-10-03
2000-01-2720
This paper describes a method for predicting structural failure probabilities for automotive windshields. The predictive model is supported by the data from strength tests performed on specimens of automotive glass. Evaluations of stresses can be based on finite element calculations, or measurements of the residual stresses that arise from fabrication. Failure probabilities for each subregion of a windshield are estimated from the local state of stress, the surface area or length (for edge elements) of the subregion, and statistical distributions of glass strengths. Example calculations are presented that show the relative contributions of edge stresses, surface stresses and residual stresses to calculated failure probabilities.
Journal Article

Predicting Stress vs. Strain Behaviors of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloy with Actual Pore Distribution

2016-04-05
2016-01-0290
In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure-based finite element modeling method (i.e., extrinsic modeling method) is developed, which can be used in examining the effects of porosity on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings. For this purpose, AM60 Mg tensile samples were generated under high-pressure die-casting in a specially-designed mold. Before the tensile test, the samples were CT-scanned to obtain the pore distributions within the samples. 3D microstructure-based finite element models were then developed based on the obtained actual pore distributions of the gauge area. The input properties for the matrix material were determined by fitting the simulation result to the experimental result of a selected sample, and then used for all the other samples’ simulation. The results show that the ductility and fracture locations predicted from simulations agree well with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1220
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Process with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

2006-04-03
2006-01-1394
Since its invention fifteen years ago, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has found commercial applications in marine, aerospace, rail, and now automotive industries. Development of the FSW process for each new application, however, has remained largely empirical. Few detailed numerical modeling techniques have been developed that can explain and predict important features of the process physics. This is particularly true in the areas of material flow, mixing mechanisms, and void prediction. In this paper we present a novel modeling approach to simulate FSW processes that may have significant advantages over current traditional finite element or finite difference based methods. The proposed model is based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Biaxial Strength of New vs. Used Windshields

2000-10-03
2000-01-2721
This paper presents the strength data for conventional automotive windshields in both the new and used conditions. More specifically, the biaxial strength of outer surface of curved and symmetrically laminated windshield, measured in biaxial flexure, is reported. The relative contributions of inplane membrane stress, which can be significant for new windshields, and bending stress are quantified with the aid of strain gauge rosettes mounted on both the outer and inner surfaces of windshield. The strength distribution for new and used windshields, based on Weibull distribution function, is found to be multimodal indicating more than one family of surface flaws. Depending on handling damage during manufacturing, assembly and installation processes, the low strength region of new windshields can approach that of used windshields with 50,000+ road miles!
Technical Paper

Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviors of Aluminum Honeycombs Under Dynamic Inclined Loads

2007-04-16
2007-01-0979
Macroscopic constitutive behaviors of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycombs under dynamic inclined loads with respect to the out-of-plane direction are investigated by experiments. The results of the dynamic crush tests indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the normal crush strength increases and the shear strength remains nearly the same for a fixed ratio of the normal to shear displacement rate. The experimental results suggest that the macroscopic yield surface of the honeycomb specimens as a function of the impact velocity under the given dynamic inclined loads is not governed by the isotropic hardening rule of the classical plasticity theory. As the impact velocity increases, the shape of the macroscopic yield surface changes, or more specifically, the curvature of the yield surface increases near the pure compression state.
Journal Article

Loading Path Dependence of Forming Limit Diagram of a TRIP800 Steel

2011-04-12
2011-01-0019
In this paper, the microstructure-based finite element modeling method is used in investigating the loading path dependence of formability of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. For this purpose, the effects of different loading path on the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of TRIP steels are qualitatively examined using the representative volume element (RVE) of a commercial TRIP800 steel. First, the modeling method was introduced, where a combined isotropic/kinematic hardening rule is adopted for the constituent phases in order to correctly describe the cyclic deformation behaviors of TRIP steels during the forming process with combined loading paths which may include the unloading between the two consecutive loadings. Material parameters for the constituent phases remained the same as those in the authors' previous study [ 1 ] except for some adjustments for the martensite phase due to the introduction of the new combined hardening rule.
Technical Paper

Lean-NOx and Plasma Catalysis Over γ-Alumina for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

2001-09-24
2001-01-3569
The NOx reduction performance under lean conditions over γ-alumina was evaluated using a micro-reactor system and a non-thermal plasma-equipped bench test system. Various alumina samples were obtained from alumina manufacturers to assess commercial alumina materials. In addition, γ-alumina samples were synthesized at Caterpillar with a sol-gel technique in order to control alumina properties. The deNOx performances of the alumina samples were compared. The alumina samples were characterized with analytical techniques such as inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and surface area measurements (BET) to understand physical and chemical properties. The information derived from these techniques was correlated with the NOx reduction performance to identify key parameters of γ-alumina for optimizing materials for lean-NOx and plasma assisted catalysis.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Multi-Scale Model Development for Advanced High Strength Steels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0226
This paper presents development of a multi-scale material model for a 980 MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning heat treatment (QP980), based on integrated computational materials engineering principles (ICME Model). The model combines micro-scale material properties defined by the crystal plasticity theory with the macro-scale mechanical properties, such as flow curves under different loading paths. For an initial microstructure the flow curves of each of the constituent phases (ferrite, austenite, martensite) are computed based on the crystal plasticity theory and the crystal orientation distribution function. Phase properties are then used as an input to a state variable model that computes macro-scale flow curves while accounting for hardening caused by austenite transformation into martensite under different straining paths.
Technical Paper

Global Failure Criteria for SOFC Positive/Electrolyte/Negative (PEN) Structure

2007-04-16
2007-01-0997
Due to mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of various layers in the PEN (positive/electrolyte/ negative) structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), thermal stresses and warpage on the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. In order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC, it is necessary to develop failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures based on the initial flaws occurred during cell sintering and stack assembly.
Technical Paper

Failure Predictions for Aluminum Tube Hydroforming Processes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0543
Two analytical tools for failure predictions in free-expansion tube hydroforming, namely “Process Window Diagram” (PWD) and forming limit curve (FLC), are discussed in this paper. The PWD represents the incipient failure conditions of buckling, wrinkling and bursting of free-expansion tube hydroforming processes in the plane of process parameters, e.g. internal pressure versus axial compression. The PWD is a useful tool for design engineers to quickly assess part producibility and process design for tube hydroforming. An attempt is also made to draw the differences between FLCs for sheet and tube so that the appropriate FLC could be used to estimate the bursting or fracture limits in free-expansion tube hydroforming processes.
Technical Paper

Effects of Pore Distributions on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die-Cast Magnesium

2013-04-08
2013-01-0644
In this paper, a microstructure-based three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die-cast (HPDC) magnesium alloys on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope and X-ray tomography to obtain the general information on the pore distribution features. The experimentally observed pore distribution features are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element models with different pore volume fractions and pore distribution features. Shear and ductile damage models are adopted in the finite element analyses to induce the fracture by element removal, leading to the prediction of ductility.
Technical Paper

Effects of Manufacturing Processes and In-Service mperature Variations on the Properties of TRIP Steels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0793
This paper examines some key aspects of the manufacturing process that “ Transformation Induced Plasticity” (TRIP) steels would be exposed to, and systematically evaluate how the forming and thermal histories affect final strength and ductility of the material. We evaluate the effects of in-service temperature variations, such as under hood and hot/cold cyclic conditions, to determine whether these conditions influence final strength, ductility and energy absorption characteristics of several available TRIP steel grades. As part of the manufacturing thermal environment evaluations, stamping process thermal histories are included in the studies. As part of the in-service conditions, different pre-straining levels are included. Materials from four steel suppliers are examined. The thermal/straining history versus material property relationship is established over a full range of expected thermal histories and selected loading modes.
Technical Paper

Effects of Forming Induced Phase Transformation on Crushing Behavior of TRIP Steel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0216
In this paper, results of finite element crash simulation are presented for a TRIP steel side rail with and without considering the phase transformation during forming operations. A homogeneous phase transformation model is adapted to model the mechanical behavior of the austenite-to-martensite phase. The forming process of TRIP steels is simulated with the implementation of the material model. The distribution and volume fraction of the martensite in TRIP steels may be greatly influenced by various factors during forming process and subsequently contribute to the behavior of the formed TRIP steels during the crushing process. The results indicate that, with the forming induced phase transformation, higher energy absorption of the side rail can be achieved. The phase transformation enhances the strength of the side rail.
Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0419
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
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