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Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Pressure Effects on the Cold Start Performance of a GDI Engine

The effects of reduced fuel injection pressure on the cold start performance of a GDI engine have been studied in a single-cylinder, optically-accessible research engine. Two Delphi Automotive Systems DI-G injectors, with included spray cone angles of 60° and 80° respectively, were studied. Both injectors are designed to operate at a nominal fuel line pressure of 10 MPa. For the study they were operated at several fuel feed pressures between 10 MPa and 2 MPa. Two start of injection timings (50° and 100° ATDC) were examined. Cold start performance was characterized by measurements of the GIMEP, COV of GIMEP, and total engine out UHCs. Simultaneous Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and Mie Scattering images of the fuel spray were used to observe spray penetration, mixing, and in-cylinder fuel distribution throughout the intake and compression strokes. Ultimately these images were used to explain observed performance differences.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Effects of Cr2O3 and PSZ on Gas-Phase Ignition Under Diesel Engine Combustion Conditions

The effect of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) surfaces on the gas-phase ignition of hydrocarbon fuels has been studied in a high pressure chemical flow reactor under low heat-loss Diesel engine simulated conditions. Results are presented for propane and n-hexane fuels at 6 and 10 atmospheres and are compared to previously reported results obtained under similar conditions with platinum surfaces. Thermal enhancement of the gas-phase reactions, as evidenced by the catalytic production of CO and CO2, was found to be negligible for both Cr2O3 and PSZ, where as significant thermal enhancement was observed with platinum. Chemical enhancement of the gas-phase ignition reactions, as evidenced by an increase in the production of intermediate hydrocarbons, was observed under fuel rich conditions with both Cr2O3 and PSZ. Oxygen was shown to be essential in that no change in the intermediate hydrocarbon concentration was observed under pyrolysis conditions.