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Technical Paper

The Characteristics of Scavenging Flow in a Poppet-Valve Type 2-Stroke Diesel Engine by Using RSSV System

Optimization study is performed for the scavenging process as the first step for the development of a poppet-valve type automotive two-stroke diesel engine. The scavenging flow pattern is varied by the RSSV (rotatable shrouded scavenging valve) system, which was designed for application of a shroud valve to an actual engine. The scavenging flow is analyzed by flow visualization and numerical calculations under a steady condition. Water is used as the working fluid, instead of air for effective visualization of the flow pattern in the flow visualization study. More details in the scavenging characteristics are observed by a dye experiment, in which the dye path indicates the flow streamline in the cylinder. In the numerical study, three-dimensional flows are calculated by a modified version of KIVA-2 code, with a special technique to consider the valve and shroud shapes.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction and Validation of Fuel Spray Behavior in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

Analysis of flow field and charge distribution in a gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine is performed by a modified version of the KIVA code. A particle-based spray model is proposed to simulate a swirl-type hollow-cone spray in a GDI engine. Spray droplets are assumed to be fully atomized and introduced at the sheet breakup locations as determined by experimental correlations and energy conservation. The effects of the fuel injection parameters such as spray cone angle and ambient pressure are examined for different injectors and injection conditions. Results show reasonable agreement with the measurements for penetration, dispersion, global shape, droplet velocity and size distribution by Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry(PDPA) in a constant-volume chamber. The test engine is a 4-stroke 4-valve optically accessible single-cylinder engine with a pent-roof head and tumble ports.
Technical Paper

Extended CMC Model for Turbulent Spray Combustion in a Diesel Engine

This study presents an extended Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model [1] for turbulent spray combustion of a diesel engine. A spatially integrated CMC equation involves multiple flame structures, evaporation source terms for mixture fraction variance and scaled conditional scalar dissipation rates (CSDR) and probability density functions (PDF). An independent transport equation is solved for each flame group with equal mass of sequentially injected and evaporated fuel group. The implementation strategy in KIVA is to determine mean scalar variables instead of mean reaction rates in terms of conditional flame structures and local PDF's. Simulation is performed to test the suggested CMC model for a heavy duty diesel engine with early injection timings. NOx chemistry [2] is combined with skeletal chemistry of n-heptane [3] while soot is modeled by both one equation model [4] and two equation model [5].