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Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics, Stability and Control

In the last years the number of electronic controllers of vehicle dynamics applied to chassis components has increased dramatically. They use lookup table of the primary order vehicle global parameters as yaw rate, lateral acceleration, steering angle, car velocity, that define the ideal behavior of the vehicle. They are usually based on PID controllers which compare the actual behavior of every measured real vehicle data to the desired behavior, from look up table. The controller attempts to keep the measured quantities the same as the tabled quantities by using ESP, TC (brakes and throttle), CDC (control shocks absorbers), EDIFF(active differential) and 4WS (rear wheels active toe). The performances of these controls are good but not perfect. The improvement can be achieved by replacement of the lookup tables with a fast vehicle model running in parallel to the real vehicle.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel combustion models with turbulence chemistry interaction and detailed kinetics

Detailed and fast combustion models are necessary to support design of Diesel engines with low emission and fuel consumption. Over the years, the important of turbulence chemistry interaction to correctly describe the diffusion flame structure was demonstrated by a detailed assessment with optical data from constant-volume vessel experiments. The main objective of this work is to carry out an extensive validation of two different combustion models which are suitable for the simulation of Diesel engine combustion. The first one is the Representative Interactive Flamelet model (RIF) employing direct chemistry integration. A single flamelet formulation is generally used to reduce the computational time but this aspect limits the capability to reproduce the flame stabilization process. To overcome such limitation, a second model called tabulated flamelet progress variable (TFPV) is tested in this work.
Journal Article

Towards the Use of Eulerian Field PDF Methods for Combustion Modeling in IC Engines

Detailed chemistry and turbulence-chemistry interaction need to be properly taken into account for a realistic combustion simulation of IC engines where advanced combustion modes, multiple injections and stratified combustion involve a wide range of combustion regimes and require a proper description of several phenomena such as auto-ignition, flame stabilization, diffusive combustion and lean premixed flame propagation. To this end, different approaches are applied and the most used ones rely on the well-stirred reactor or flamelet assumption. However, well-mixed models do not describe correctly flame structure, while unsteady flamelet models cannot easily predict premixed flame propagation and triple flames. A possible alternative for them is represented by transported probability density functions (PDF) methods, which have been applied widely and effectively for modeling turbulent reacting flows under a wide range of combustion regimes.
Journal Article

Towards the LES Simulation of IC Engines with Parallel Topologically Changing Meshes

The implementation and the combination of advanced boundary conditions and subgrid scale models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in the multi-dimensional open-source CFD code OpenFOAM® are presented. The goal is to perform reliable cold flow LES simulations in complex geometries, such as in the cylinders of internal combustion engines. The implementation of a boundary condition for synthetic turbulence generation upstream of the valve port and of the compressible formulation of the Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity sgs model (WALE) is described. The WALE model is based on the square of the velocity gradient tensor and it accounts for the effects of both the strain and the rotation rate of the smallest resolved turbulent fluctuations and it recovers the proper y₃ near-wall scaling for the eddy viscosity without requiring dynamic procedure; hence, it is supposed to be a very reliable model for ICE simulation.
Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Technical Paper

Tire Ply-Steer, Conicity and Rolling Resistance - Analytical Formulae for Accurate Assessment of Vehicle Performance during Straight Running

The aim of the paper is to provide simple and accurate analytical formulae describing the straight motion of a road vehicle. Such formulae can be used to compute either the steering torque or the additional rolling resistance induced by vehicle side-slip angle. The paper introduces a revised formulation of the Handling Diagram Theory to take into account tire ply-steer, conicity and road banking. Pacejka’s Handling Diagram Theory is based on a relatively simple fully non-linear single track model. We will refer to the linear part of the Handling Diagram, since straight motion will be considered only. Both the elastokinematics of suspension system and tire characteristics are taken into account. The validation of the analytical expressions has been performed both theoretically and after a subjective-objective test campaign. By means of the new and unreferenced analytical formulae, practical hints are given to set to zero the steering torque during straight running.
Journal Article

Theoretical/Experimental Study on the Vibrations of a Car Engine

The influence of the inertia properties (mass, centre of gravity location, and inertia tensor) on the dynamic behaviour of the engine-gearbox system of a car is studied in this paper, devoting particular attention to drivability and comfort. The vibration amplitudes and the natural frequencies of the engine-gearbox system have been considered. Additionally, the loads transmitted to the car body have been taken into account. Both the experimental and the theoretical simulations confirmed that the engine-gearbox vibrations in the range 10 - 15 Hz are particularly sensitive to slight variation of the inertia properties. The effects on engine-gearbox vibrations due to half-axles, exhaust system, pipes and inner engine-gearbox fluids have been highlighted.
Journal Article

Theoretical and Experimental Ride Comfort Assessment of a Subject Seated into a Car

A comprehensive research is presented aiming at assessing the ride comfort of subjects seated into road or off-road vehicles. Although many papers and books have appeared in the literature, many issues on ride comfort are still to be understood, in particular, the paper investigates the mutual effects of the posture and the vibration caused mostly from road unevenness. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, a mathematical model of a seated subject is validated by means of actual measurements on human subjects riding on a car. Such measurements refer to the accelerations acting at the subject/seat interface (vertical acceleration at the seat cushion and horizontal acceleration at the seat back). A proper dummy is used to derive the seat stiffness and damping.
Journal Article

The NH3 Inhibition Effect in the Standard SCR Reaction over a Commercial Fe-zeolite Catalyst for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment: An Experimental and Modeling Study

Transient and steady-state kinetic data are herein presented to analyze the inhibiting effect of ammonia on the NH₃-SCR of NO at low temperatures over a Fe-zeolite commercial catalyst for vehicles. It is shown that in SCR converter models a rate expression accounting for NH₃ inhibition of the Standard SCR reaction is needed in order to predict the specific dynamics observed both in lab-scale and in engine test bench runs upon switching on and off the ammonia feed. Two redox, dual site kinetic models are developed which ascribe such inhibition to the spill-over of ammonia from its adsorption sites, associated with the zeolite, to the redox sites, associated with the Fe promoter. Better agreement both with lab-scale intrinsic kinetic runs and with engine test-bench data, particularly during transients associated with dosing of ammonia to the SCR catalyst, is obtained assuming slow migration of NH₃ between the two sites.
Technical Paper

The Air Assisted Direct Injection ELEVATE Automotive Engine Combustion System

The purpose of the ELEVATE (European Low Emission V4 Automotive Two-stroke Engine) industrial research project is to develop a small, compact, light weight, high torque and highly efficient clean gasoline 2-stroke engine of 120 kW which could industrially replace the relatively big existing automotive spark ignition or diesel 4-stroke engine used in the top of the mid size or in the large size vehicles, including the minivan vehicles used for multi people and family transportation. This new gasoline direct injection engine concept is based on the combined implementation on a 4-stroke bottom end of several 2-stroke engine innovative technologies such as the IAPAC compressed air assisted direct fuel injection, the CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) combustion process, the D2SC (Dual Delivery Screw SuperCharger) for both low pressure engine scavenging and higher pressure IAPAC air assisted DI and the ETV (Exhaust charge Trapping Valve).
Journal Article

The 3Dcell Approach for the Acoustic Modeling of After-Treatment Devices

In the last decades the continuously tightening limitations on pollutant emissions has led to an extensive adoption of after-treatment devices on the exhaust systems of modern internal combustion engines. While these devices are primarily introduced for reducing and controlling the emissions, they also play an important role influencing the wave motion inside the exhaust system and so affecting the acoustics and the performances of the engine. In this paper a novel approach is proposed for the modeling of two after-treatment devices: the catalyst and the Diesel Particulate Filter. The models are based on a fast quasi-3D approach, named 3Dcell, originally developed by the authors for the acoustic modeling of silencers. This approach allows to model the wave motion by solving the momentum equation along the three directions.
Technical Paper

Test-Model Correlation in Spacecraft Thermal Control by Means of MonteCarlo Techniques

In the paper some methods are presented, with the corresponding practical examples, related to MonteCarlo (MC) techniques for thermal model/test correlation purposes. The MonteCarlo techniques applied to model correlation are intended to be used as an alternative to empirical ‘manual’ correlation techniques, gradients methods, matrix methods based on least square fit minimization. First of all, Design Of Experiments (DoE) tools are used to determine the model response to uncertain parameters and the confidence level of such a response. A sensitivity map is built, allowing the design of the test to maximize the response of the system to the uncertain parameters. Techniques derived from the extreme statistics are used to extrapolate data beyond test limits, with a sufficient confidence in the queue behaviour.
Journal Article

Test Rig for Characterization of Automotive Suspension Systems

A test rig (named RuotaVia) is presented for the in-door testing of road vehicle suspension systems. It is basically a drum (ϕ 2.6 m) providing a running surface for testing the dynamic performance of a single tire or suspension system (corner). The suspension system is instrumented for the measurement of the forces and the moments acting at each joint connecting the suspension to the car body. A new 6 axis load cell was designed and manufactured for this purpose. The accelerations in various locations of the system (wheel carrier, suspension arms, …) and the wheel centre displacements in the longitudinal and vertical directions are monitored. The effect of the dynamic interaction between the test rig and the suspension system is discussed in the paper. The direct measurement of the forces and moments at the suspension-chassis joints is still an effective way for understanding the vibration and harshness (VH) suspension performances.
Technical Paper

Tempered Wire Fatigue Testing

A new bench for the rotating bending fatigue tests of tempered steel wires is presented. The new bench is used to check the spring wire just before it is finally winded to realize a spring. The bench is basically a four-point bending machine. There are two main differences with respect to current bending machines. The first one is that the focus is on semi-finished components (more than 1 meter long), rather than standard small-scale specimens. The second one is that there is a non-linear configuration of the tested component due to its length. The bench design has provided some unreferenced features that make the bench quite accurate and effective in producing quick fatigue assessments. A rotor-dynamic study has allowed to perform tests at 50 Hz. As a preliminary application, some fatigue bending tests of tempered steel wires are described and discussed.
Technical Paper

Suspension Systems: Some New Analytical Formulas for Describing the Dynamic Behavior

The paper presents some new and unreferenced analytical formulae describing the dynamic behaviour of the suspension system of road or off-road vehicles. The quarter car model (2 degrees of freedom) is considered, the suspension can be either passive or active. Passive suspensions can be simplified as the spring-damper combination or the spring-damper combination with an additional in series spring (representing, e.g., the rubber bushing at the top of a McPherson strut or the rubber bushing at the end joints of the damper). The mathematical system is linear and the excitation is given by a random stationary and ergodic process. The standard deviations in analytical form are given referring to, respectively, the vehicle body acceleration, the relative displacement between sprung and unsprung mass, and the force at the ground. The so called invariant points of the frequency response functions are derived for both active and passive suspension.
Technical Paper

Subjective-Objective Ride Comfort Assessment of Farm Tractors

The paper is focused on both the subjective and the objective ride comfort evaluation of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride comfort level was performed by considering five different drivers. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of a farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective driver feeling with the measured accelerations.
Technical Paper

Solar Prototype for Shell-Eco Marathon Race

Apollo is the name of a solar prototype vehicle of Politecnico di Milano (Technical University of Milan) that has been conceived and employed for the Shell Eco-marathon® Europe competition (SEM). The paper introduces the concept design, the detailed design, the construction, the indoor tests, the successful employment at SEM and the end-of-life of the prototype. Apollo is a three-wheeler with a single driving and steering wheel at the rear. A wing with solar cells provides part of the electric energy required for running. The conceptual design started from the accommodation of the driver inside the vehicle. A number of iterations focusing on CFD (computation fluid dynamics) and wind-tunnel tests allowed to refine the total drag to less than 2N at 35 km/h. The tyre characteristic was measured on a drum. The camber of front wheels was set to 4 deg which provided the least rolling resistance.
Journal Article

Simulations of Advanced Combustion Modes Using Detailed Chemistry Combined with Tabulation and Mechanism Reduction Techniques

Multi-dimensional models represent today consolidated tools to simulate the combustion process in HCCI and diesel engines. Various approaches are available for this purpose, it is however widely accepted that detailed chemistry represents a fundamental prerequisite to obtain satisfactory results when the engine runs with complex injection strategies or advanced combustion modes. Yet, integrating such mechanisms generally results in prohibitive computational cost. This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for fast and efficient simulations of combustion in internal combustion engines using detailed chemistry. For this purpose, techniques to tabulate the species reaction rates and to reduce the chemical mechanisms on the fly have been coupled.
Journal Article

Removal of NOx from Diesel Exhausts: The New “Enhanced NH3-SCR” Reaction

Ammonia/urea-SCR is a mature technology, applied worldwide for the control of NOx emissions in combustion exhausts from thermal power plants, cogeneration units, incinerators and stationary diesel engines and more recently also from mobile sources. However a greater DeNOx activity at low temperatures is desired in order to meet more and more restrictive legislations. In this paper we report transient and steady state data collected over commercial Fe-ZSM-5 and V₂O₅-WO₃/TiO₂ catalysts showing high NOx reduction efficiencies in the 200 - 350°C T-range when NO and ammonia react with nitrates, e.g., in the form of an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate. Under such conditions a new reaction occurs, the so-called "Enhanced SCR" reaction, 2 NH₃ + 2 NO + NH₄NO₃ → 3 N₂ + 5 H₂O.
Technical Paper

Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms for Diesel Spray Combustion Simulations

Detailed chemistry represents a fundamental pre-requisite for a realistic simulation of combustion process in Diesel engines to properly reproduce ignition delay and flame structure (lift-off and soot precursors) in a wide range of operating conditions. In this work, the authors developed reduced mechanisms for n-dodecane starting from the comprehensive kinetic mechanism developed at Politecnico di Milano, well validated and tested in a wide range of operating conditions [1]. An algorithm combining Sensitivity and Flux Analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The size of the mechanisms can be limited to less than 100 species and incorporates the most important details of low-temperature kinetics for a proper prediction of the ignition delay. Furthermore, the high-temperature chemistry is also properly described both in terms of reactivity and species formation, including unsaturated compounds such as acetylene, whose concentration controls soot formation.