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Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of the Soot Deposition Mechanism in Diesel Particulate Filters

A computational, three-dimensional approach to investigate the behavior of diesel soot particles in the micro-channels of wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters is presented. The KIVA3V CFD code, already extended to solve the 2D conservation equations for porous media materials [1], has been enhanced to solve in 2-D and 3-D the governing equations for reacting and compressible flows through porous media in non axes-symmetric geometries. With respect to previous work [1], a different mathematical approach has been followed in the implementation of the numerical solver for porous media, in order to achieve a faster convergency as source terms were added to the governing equations. The Darcy pressure drop has been included in the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation has been extended to account for the thermal exchange between the gas flow and the porous wall.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modelling Study of Octane Number and Sensitivity of Hydrocarbon Mixtures in CFR Engines

Aim of this work is to present and discuss the possibility and the limits of two zone models for spark-ignition engines using a detailed kinetic scheme for the characterization of the evolution of the air-fuel mixture, while an equilibrium approach is used for the burnt zone. Simple experimental measurements of knocking tendency of different fuels in ideal reactors, such as rapid compression machines and shock tube reactors, cannot be directly used for the analysis of octane numbers and sensitivity of hydrocarbon mixtures. Thus a careful investigation is very useful, not only of the combustion chamber behavior, including the modelling of the turbulent flame front propagation, but also of the fluid dynamic behavior of the intake and exhaust system, accounting for the volumetric efficiency of the engine.
Journal Article

A Coupled 1D-multiD Nonlinear Simulation of I.C. Engine Silencers with Perforates and Sound-Absorbing Material

Nowadays a great attention is paid to the level and quality of noise radiated from the tailpipe end of intake and exhaust systems, to control the gas dynamic noise emitted by the engine as well as the characteristics of the cabin interior sound. The muffler geometry can be optimized consequently, to attenuate or remark certain spectral components of the engine noise, according to the result expected. Evidently the design of complex silencing systems is a time-consuming operation, which must be carried out by means of concurrent experimental measurements and numerical simulations. In particular, 1D and multiD linear/non-linear simulation codes can be applied to predict the silencer behavior in the time and frequency domain. This paper describes the development of a 1D-multiD integrated approach for the simulation of complex muffler configurations such as reverse chambers with inlet and outlet pipe extensions and perforated silencers with the addition of sound absorbing material.