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Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics, Stability and Control

In the last years the number of electronic controllers of vehicle dynamics applied to chassis components has increased dramatically. They use lookup table of the primary order vehicle global parameters as yaw rate, lateral acceleration, steering angle, car velocity, that define the ideal behavior of the vehicle. They are usually based on PID controllers which compare the actual behavior of every measured real vehicle data to the desired behavior, from look up table. The controller attempts to keep the measured quantities the same as the tabled quantities by using ESP, TC (brakes and throttle), CDC (control shocks absorbers), EDIFF(active differential) and 4WS (rear wheels active toe). The performances of these controls are good but not perfect. The improvement can be achieved by replacement of the lookup tables with a fast vehicle model running in parallel to the real vehicle.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Combustion Models with Turbulence Chemistry Interaction and Detailed Kinetics

Detailed and fast combustion models are necessary to support design of Diesel engines with low emission and fuel consumption. Over the years, the importance of turbulence chemistry interaction to correctly describe the diffusion flame structure was demonstrated by a detailed assessment with optical data from constant-volume vessel experiments. The main objective of this work is to carry out an extensive validation of two different combustion models which are suitable for the simulation of Diesel engine combustion. The first one is the Representative Interactive Flamelet model (RIF) employing direct chemistry integration. A single flamelet formulation is generally used to reduce the computational time but this aspect limits the capability to reproduce the flame stabilization process. To overcome such limitation, a second model called tabulated flamelet progress variable (TFPV) is tested in this work.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Vaporization Histories and Trajectories of Fuel Drops Injected into Swirling Air

Single droplet theory is used to simulate the behavior of fuel sprays in high-speed open-chamber diesels. A model for sprays in still air is presented which includes the air motion induced by the spray. Calculated paths and vaporization histories for droplets injected into swirling air are also presented. It is shown that the paths of vaporizing drops are closely approximated by solid sphere calculations. The effects of swirl speed, engine rpm, and squish air motion are also investigated.
Journal Article

Towards the Use of Eulerian Field PDF Methods for Combustion Modeling in IC Engines

Detailed chemistry and turbulence-chemistry interaction need to be properly taken into account for a realistic combustion simulation of IC engines where advanced combustion modes, multiple injections and stratified combustion involve a wide range of combustion regimes and require a proper description of several phenomena such as auto-ignition, flame stabilization, diffusive combustion and lean premixed flame propagation. To this end, different approaches are applied and the most used ones rely on the well-stirred reactor or flamelet assumption. However, well-mixed models do not describe correctly flame structure, while unsteady flamelet models cannot easily predict premixed flame propagation and triple flames. A possible alternative for them is represented by transported probability density functions (PDF) methods, which have been applied widely and effectively for modeling turbulent reacting flows under a wide range of combustion regimes.
Journal Article

Towards the LES Simulation of IC Engines with Parallel Topologically Changing Meshes

The implementation and the combination of advanced boundary conditions and subgrid scale models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in the multi-dimensional open-source CFD code OpenFOAM® are presented. The goal is to perform reliable cold flow LES simulations in complex geometries, such as in the cylinders of internal combustion engines. The implementation of a boundary condition for synthetic turbulence generation upstream of the valve port and of the compressible formulation of the Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity sgs model (WALE) is described. The WALE model is based on the square of the velocity gradient tensor and it accounts for the effects of both the strain and the rotation rate of the smallest resolved turbulent fluctuations and it recovers the proper y₃ near-wall scaling for the eddy viscosity without requiring dynamic procedure; hence, it is supposed to be a very reliable model for ICE simulation.
Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Journal Article

Theoretical/Experimental Study on the Vibrations of a Car Engine

The influence of the inertia properties (mass, centre of gravity location, and inertia tensor) on the dynamic behaviour of the engine-gearbox system of a car is studied in this paper, devoting particular attention to drivability and comfort. The vibration amplitudes and the natural frequencies of the engine-gearbox system have been considered. Additionally, the loads transmitted to the car body have been taken into account. Both the experimental and the theoretical simulations confirmed that the engine-gearbox vibrations in the range 10 - 15 Hz are particularly sensitive to slight variation of the inertia properties. The effects on engine-gearbox vibrations due to half-axles, exhaust system, pipes and inner engine-gearbox fluids have been highlighted.
Technical Paper

The Simulation of Single Cylinder Intake and Exhaust Systems

A detailed description of a numerical method for computing unsteady flows in engine intake and exhaust systems is given. The calculations include the effects of heat transfer and friction. The inclusion of such calculations in a mathematically simulated engine cycle is discussed and results shown for several systems. In particular, the effects of bell-mouth versus plain pipe terminations and the effects of a finite surge tank are calculated. Experimental data on the effect of heat transfer from the back of the intake valve on wave damping are given and show the effect to be negligible. Experimental data on wave damping during the valve closed period and on the temperature rise of the air near the valve are also given.
Technical Paper

The Reaction of Ethane in Spark Ignition Engine Exhaust Gas

This paper describes a method for studying reactions of hydrocarbons in S.I. engine exhaust gases. The reaction of ethane is described using an Arrhenius model (experimentally E = 86,500 cal/mole) for the rate of ethane diappearance and empirical correlations for distributions of the products carbon monoxide, ethylene, formaldehyde, methane, acetylene, and propane as a function of the fraction of ethane reacted. The results show that the nature of partial oxidation products from a nonreactive hydrocarbon may be less desirable from an air pollution viewpoint than the initial hydrocarbon.
Technical Paper

The Radiant and Convective Components of Diesel Engine Heat Transfer

The ratio of two temperature gradients across the combustion-chamber wall in a diesel engine is used to provide a heat flow ratio showing the radiant heat transfer as a per cent of local total heat transfer. The temperature gradients were obtained with a thermocouple junction on each side of the combustion-chamber wall. The first temperature gradient was obtained by covering the thermocouple at the cylinder gas-wall interface with a thin sapphire window, while the second was obtained without the window. Results show that the time-average radiant heat transfer is of significant magnitude in a diesel engine, and is probably even more significant in heat transfer during combustion and expansion.
Journal Article

The NH3 Inhibition Effect in the Standard SCR Reaction over a Commercial Fe-zeolite Catalyst for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment: An Experimental and Modeling Study

Transient and steady-state kinetic data are herein presented to analyze the inhibiting effect of ammonia on the NH₃-SCR of NO at low temperatures over a Fe-zeolite commercial catalyst for vehicles. It is shown that in SCR converter models a rate expression accounting for NH₃ inhibition of the Standard SCR reaction is needed in order to predict the specific dynamics observed both in lab-scale and in engine test bench runs upon switching on and off the ammonia feed. Two redox, dual site kinetic models are developed which ascribe such inhibition to the spill-over of ammonia from its adsorption sites, associated with the zeolite, to the redox sites, associated with the Fe promoter. Better agreement both with lab-scale intrinsic kinetic runs and with engine test-bench data, particularly during transients associated with dosing of ammonia to the SCR catalyst, is obtained assuming slow migration of NH₃ between the two sites.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Swirl Ratio on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Motored HSDI Diesel Engine - A Combined Experimental and Numerical Study

Simultaneous two-component measurements of gas velocity and multi-dimensional numerical simulation are employed to characterize the evolution of the in-cylinder turbulent flow structure in a re-entrant bowl-in-piston engine under motored operation. The evolution of the mean flow field, turbulence energy, turbulent length scales, and the various terms contributing to the production of the turbulence energy are correlated and compared, with the objectives of clarifying the physical mechanisms and flow structures that dominate the turbulence production and of identifying the source of discrepancies between the measured and simulated turbulence fields. Additionally, the applicability of the linear turbulent stress modeling hypothesis employed in the k-ε model is assessed using the experimental mean flow gradients, turbulence energy, and length scales.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Preparation, Fuel Stratification, and Premixed Fuel Chemistry on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion

Engine experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine to explore the effects of charge preparation, fuel stratification, and premixed fuel chemistry on the performance and emissions of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. The experiments were conducted at a fixed total fuel energy and engine speed, and charge preparation was varied by adjusting the global equivalence ratio between 0.28 and 0.35 at intake temperatures of 40°C and 60°C. With a premixed injection of isooctane (PRF100), and a single direct-injection of n-heptane (PRF0), fuel stratification was varied with start of injection (SOI) timing. Combustion phasing advanced as SOI was retarded between -140° and -35°, then retarded as injection timing was further retarded, indicating a potential shift in combustion regime. Peak gross efficiency was achieved between -60° and -45° SOI, and NOx emissions increased as SOI was retarded beyond -40°, peaking around -25° SOI.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a TiO2 Coating with the Addition of H2 Gas on Emissions of a Small Spark-Ignition Engine

This study looks at the application of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalytic nanoparticle suspension to the surface of the combustion chamber as a coating, as well as the addition of hydrogen gas to a four-stroke spark-ignited carbureted engine as a possible technique for lowering engine-out emissions. The experiments were conducted on two identical Generac gasoline powered generators using two, four and six halogen work lamps to load the engine. One generator was used as a control and the second had key components of the combustion chamber coated with the catalytic suspension. In addition to the coating, both engines were fed a hydrogen and oxygen gas mixture and tested at low, medium and high loads. Using an unmodified engine as a control set, the following three conditions were tested and compared: addition of hydrogen only, addition of coating only, and addition of hydrogen to the coated engine.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Injection Pressure on Air Entrainment into Transient Diesel Sprays

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of injection pressure on air entrainment into transient diesel sprays. The main application of interest was the direct injection diesel engine. Particle Image Velocimetry was used to make measurements of the air entrainment velocities into a spray plume as a function of time and space. A hydraulically actuated, electronically controlled unit injector (HEUI) system was used to supply the fuel into a pressurized spray chamber. The gas chamber density was maintained at 27 kg/m3. The injection pressures that were studied in this current research project were 117.6 MPa and 132.3 MPa. For different injection pressures, during the initial two-thirds of the spray plume there was little difference in the velocities normal to the spray surface. For the last third of the spray plume, the normal velocities were 125% higher for the high injection pressure case.
Journal Article

The Development of an Ignition Delay Correlation for PRF Fuel Blends from PRF0 (n-Heptane) to PRF100 (iso-Octane)

A correlation was developed to predict the ignition delay of PRF blends at a wide range of engine-relevant operating conditions. Constant volume simulations were performed using Cantera coupled with a reduced reaction mechanism at a range of initial temperatures from 570-1860K, initial pressures from 10-100atm, oxygen mole percent from 12.6% to 21%, equivalence ratios from 0.30-1.5, and PRF blends from PRF0 to PRF100. In total, 6,480 independent ignition delay simulations were performed. The correlation utilizes the traditional Arrhenius formulation; with equivalence ratio (φ), pressure (p), and oxygen mole percentage (xo2) dependencies. The exponents α, β, and γ were fitted to a third order polynomial with respect to temperature with an exponential roll-off to a constant value at low temperatures to capture the behavior expressed by the reaction mechanism. The location and rate of the roll-off functions were modified by linear functions of PRF.
Technical Paper

The Air Assisted Direct Injection ELEVATE Automotive Engine Combustion System

The purpose of the ELEVATE (European Low Emission V4 Automotive Two-stroke Engine) industrial research project is to develop a small, compact, light weight, high torque and highly efficient clean gasoline 2-stroke engine of 120 kW which could industrially replace the relatively big existing automotive spark ignition or diesel 4-stroke engine used in the top of the mid size or in the large size vehicles, including the minivan vehicles used for multi people and family transportation. This new gasoline direct injection engine concept is based on the combined implementation on a 4-stroke bottom end of several 2-stroke engine innovative technologies such as the IAPAC compressed air assisted direct fuel injection, the CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) combustion process, the D2SC (Dual Delivery Screw SuperCharger) for both low pressure engine scavenging and higher pressure IAPAC air assisted DI and the ETV (Exhaust charge Trapping Valve).
Journal Article

The 3Dcell Approach for the Acoustic Modeling of After-Treatment Devices

In the last decades the continuously tightening limitations on pollutant emissions has led to an extensive adoption of after-treatment devices on the exhaust systems of modern internal combustion engines. While these devices are primarily introduced for reducing and controlling the emissions, they also play an important role influencing the wave motion inside the exhaust system and so affecting the acoustics and the performances of the engine. In this paper a novel approach is proposed for the modeling of two after-treatment devices: the catalyst and the Diesel Particulate Filter. The models are based on a fast quasi-3D approach, named 3Dcell, originally developed by the authors for the acoustic modeling of silencers. This approach allows to model the wave motion by solving the momentum equation along the three directions.
Journal Article

Test Rig for Characterization of Automotive Suspension Systems

A test rig (named RuotaVia) is presented for the in-door testing of road vehicle suspension systems. It is basically a drum (ϕ 2.6 m) providing a running surface for testing the dynamic performance of a single tire or suspension system (corner). The suspension system is instrumented for the measurement of the forces and the moments acting at each joint connecting the suspension to the car body. A new 6 axis load cell was designed and manufactured for this purpose. The accelerations in various locations of the system (wheel carrier, suspension arms, …) and the wheel centre displacements in the longitudinal and vertical directions are monitored. The effect of the dynamic interaction between the test rig and the suspension system is discussed in the paper. The direct measurement of the forces and moments at the suspension-chassis joints is still an effective way for understanding the vibration and harshness (VH) suspension performances.
Technical Paper

Temperature-Strength-Time Relationships in Mufflers and for Truck Muffler Materials

DATA presented in this paper show temperature-time diagrams obtained from mufflers mounted on trucks which were traveling over their regular routes. Using these temperature data, specimens made of possible muffler materials were subjected to laboratory tests. A wide range of possible muffler materials and gas composition were covered in these tests. Results of the tests indicate that under long-run heavy-duty truck service, muffler failure occurs primarily because of high metal temperatures and that coated mild steel showed the most promise of longer muffler life.