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Journal Article

Offline and Real-Time Optimization of EGR Rate and Injection Timing in Diesel Engines

New methodologies have been developed to optimize EGR rate and injection timing in diesel engines, with the aim of minimizing fuel consumption (FC) and NOx engine-out emissions. The approach entails the application of a recently developed control-oriented engine model, which includes the simulation of the heat release rate, of the in-cylinder pressure and brake torque, as well as of the NOx emission levels. The engine model was coupled with a C-class vehicle model, in order to derive the engine speed and torque demand for several driving cycles, including the NEDC, FTP, AUDC, ARDC and AMDC. The optimization process was based on the minimization of a target function, which takes into account FC and NOx emission levels. The selected control variables of the problem are the injection timing of the main pulse and the position of the EGR valve, which have been considered as the most influential engine parameters on both fuel consumption and NOx emissions.
Journal Article

An Unsupervised Machine-Learning Technique for the Definition of a Rule-Based Control Strategy in a Complex HEV

An unsupervised machine-learning technique, aimed at the identification of the optimal rule-based control strategy, has been developed for parallel hybrid electric vehicles that feature a torque-coupling (TC) device, a speed-coupling (SC) device or a dual-mode system, which is able to realize both actions. The approach is based on the preliminary identification of the optimal control strategy, which is carried out by means of a benchmark optimizer, based on the deterministic dynamic programming technique, for different driving scenarios. The optimization is carried out by selecting the optimal values of the control variables (i.e., transmission gear and power flow) in order to minimize fuel consumption, while taking into account several constraints in terms of NOx emissions, battery state of charge and battery life consumption.