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Technical Paper

Linear Approach to ESP Control Logic Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-1017
An Electronic Stability Program (ESP) control logic is designed. It is devoted to stabilize vehicle during cornering maneuvers. The aim of the activity is to obtain a feed forward (FF) control structure, capable of better performance than a previously developed closed loop one. The efficiency of ESP intervention is determined observing yaw rate peak reduction and oscillation damping time during step steer maneuver, together with vehicle side slip angle containment and longitudinal speed loss. A single track vehicle model is used to obtain two transfer functions describing vehicle and active system behavior. A third transfer function is derived from active vehicle frequency response that is the designer's target. The interaction between the transfer functions permits to design a feed forward control logic, which is then merged in a closed loop control structure in order to ensure fail safe conditions and control robustness.
Technical Paper

Integrated Active and Passive Systems for a Side Impact Scenario

2013-04-08
2013-01-1162
The paper presents a simulation methodology created to support an integrated safety system development process which was tested for the side impact collision load case. The methodology is based on the coupled and complementary use of two software packages: PreScan and Madymo. PreScan was utilized for designing two traffic scenarios and the sensing and control systems for the side collision recognition, while Madymo was utilized for assessing the effects of pre-crash deployment of thorax airbag. The collision conditions from the scenarios were used as input to define a Madymo side collision model of the host vehicle and to investigate and optimize several airbag deployment parameters: pre-crash deployment time, airbag permeability, vent hole size and vent hole opening time.
Technical Paper

Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing of Automotive Control Systems

2006-02-14
2006-01-1962
The paper deals with the methodology implemented by Magneti Marelli and Politecnico di Torino Vehicle Dynamics Research group to develop and verify the software of active chassis and powertrain control systems through a Hardware-In-the-Loop automated procedure. It is a general procedure which can be adopted for all the active chassis control systems, not only for their development but also for the verification of their reliability. The steps of the procedure are described in the first part of the paper. The specific application on which this paper is focused concerns robotized gearboxes.
Technical Paper

Hardware and Virtual Test-rigs for Automotive Steel Wheels Design

2020-04-14
2020-01-1231
The aim of this paper is to study in deep the peculiar test-rigs and experimental procedures adopted to the fulfilment of the principal requirements of automotive steel wheels, in particular regarding fatigue damaging. In the discussion, the standard requirements, the OEM specifications and the dimensional and geometric tolerances are approached. As result of an increasingly necessity to improve the performance of the components, innovative virtual test benches are presented. Differently from their traditional precursors, virtual test-rigs gives an extended view of the physical behaviour of the component as the possibility to monitor stress-strain distribution. In the first section, the state of the art and the specifications are listed. Secondly, the adopted hardware test-rigs as the experimental tests are described in detail. In the third one, the new generation of virtual test-rigs are discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental-numerical correlation of a multi-body model for comfort analysis of an heavy truck

2020-04-14
2020-01-0768
In automotive market, today more than in the past, it is very important to reduce time to market and, mostly, developing costs before the final production start. Ideally, bench and the on-road tests can be replaced by multi-body studies because virtual approach guarantees test conditions very close to reality and it is able to exactly replicate the standard procedures. Approval authorities are starting to look at simulations to release homologation certificates. Therefore, today, it is essential to create very reliable models, able to forecast the vehicle behavior on every road condition (including uneven surfaces). The aim of this study is to build a reliable multi-body model of a heavy commercial vehicle and to correlate experimental and numerical data related to comfort analysis for validation purposes. Experimental results are recorded during tests carried out at different speeds and loading conditions on a Belgian blocks track.
Technical Paper

Experimental Test of Vehicle Longitudinal Velocity and Road Frictim Estimation for ABS System

2009-04-20
2009-01-0428
Antilock Braking System (ABS) is designed to prevent wheels from locking, in order to enhance vehicle directional stability during braking manoeuvres. Basically, ABS closed-loop control logic uses tyres slip as control variable. Slip is estimated by comparing vehicle reference speed with the angular speed of each wheel. Thus it is crucial to correctly estimate the longitudinal vehicle speed, in order to get a control system capable of good performance. The control is also affected by road condition; since vehicles are not equipped with sensors able to measure the tyre/road friction coefficient, an other estimation has to be performed. The paper presents an algorithm for the estimation of longitudinal speed, based on the measurements of the four wheel angular speed. A method to assess the road friction, commonly known as “learning phase” is also described: it is carried out during the early stage of the active control intervention and relies on the wheel rotation sensors as well.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Transmission NVH Performance through Powertrain Control Integration with Active Braking System

2017-06-05
2017-01-1778
This paper explores the potentiality of reducing noise and vibration of a vehicle transmission thanks to powertrain control integration with active braking. Due to external disturbances, coming from the driver, e.g. during tip-in / tip-out maneuvers, or from the road, e.g. crossing a speed bump or driving on a rough road, the torsional backlashes between transmission rotating components (gears, synchronizers, splines, CV joints), may lead to NVH issues known as clonk. This study initially focuses on the positive effect on transmission NVH performance of a concurrent application of a braking torque at the driving wheels and of an engine torque increase during these maneuvers; then a powertrain/brake integrated control strategy is proposed. The braking system is activated in advance with respect to the perturbation and it is deactivated immediately after to minimize losses.
Technical Paper

Electro-Hydraulic Braking System Modelling and Simulation

2003-10-19
2003-01-3336
The first step toward a braking system ‘by wire’ is Electro-Hydraulic Braking System (EHB). The paper describes a method to evaluate through virtual experimentation the actual improvement in vehicle behaviour, from the point of view of both handling and comfort, including also pedal feeling, due to EHB. The first step consisted in modelling the hydraulic unit, comprehensive of sensors. Then it was conceived a control logic devoted to medium-low intensity braking manoeuvres, without ABS intervention, to determine an optimal braking force distribution and pedal feeling depending on the manoeuvre. A failsafe strategy, complete of on board diagnosis, to prevent dangerous system behaviour in the eventuality of a component failure was carried out and tested. Finally, EHB wheel pressure sensors were used to improve both ABS performance, increasing the adherence estimation, and Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) performance, through a more precise actuation.
Technical Paper

Dual Clutch Transmission Vibrations during Gear Shift: A Simulation-Based Approach for Clunking Noise Assessment

2019-06-05
2019-01-1553
A novel methodology, for the assessment of Dual Clutch Transmission vibrations during gear shifts, is proposed in this paper. It is based on the capability to predict through numerical simulation a typical dynamic quantity used to objectively evaluate the vibrational behavior of a gearbox during experimental tests, i.e. the acceleration of a point on the external surface of the gearbox housing. To achieve this result, a two-step approach is proposed: an accurate simulation of the internal transmission dynamics and an offline uncoupled computation of the gearbox housing acceleration from the output of the simulation. The first step required the definition of a suitable nonlinear lumped parameter model of the car equipped with a DCT that was implemented in Amesim software.
Technical Paper

Base Model Simulator (BMS) - A Vehicle Dynamics Model to Evaluate Chassis Control Systems Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-0401
Chassis Control Systems development methodology is nowadays strongly based on analyzing performance by using PC vehicle dynamics simulation. Generally, the overall design, test bench and road validation process is continuously accompanied by simulation. The Base Model Simulator was developed by the Vehicle Dynamics Group at the Department of Mechanics of Politecnico di Torino both to satisfy this requirement and for educational purposes. It considers a complete vehicle dynamics mathematical model, including driver, powertrain, driveline, vehicle body, suspensions, steering system, brakes, tires. The Base Model Simulator takes in account the suspensions system elastokinematics, including, for example, automatic computation of camber variation during the vehicle roll motions. Tire model considered are either Pacejka's models or experimental data.
Journal Article

A Theoretical Investigation of the Influence of Powertrain Mounts on Transmission Torsional Dynamics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1124
This paper investigates the effect of the powertrain mounting system on the linear and nonlinear torsional dynamical behaviour of a transmission system. To this aim, two dynamic models, one with rigid mounts and the other with flexible mounts, are presented and compared: the first model considers only the torsional dynamics of transmission and driveline, while the second model includes also a 3 degrees-of-freedom powertrain block. The mechanical coupling and interaction between the powertrain block and transmission system is discussed and formulated. These models are then analyzed in terms of vibrational mode shapes, natural frequencies and Frequency Response Functions (FRFs); a sensitivity analysis of the main transmission parameters, e.g. the gear ratio, is also presented.
Technical Paper

A Prototype Vehicle for Powertrain and Chassis Control System Tests

2011-06-09
2011-37-0028
A prototype vehicle (PV) is equipped to test powertrain and active chassis systems with innovative control strategies for safety and energy saving. Additional sensors installed on-board allow the measurement and estimation of new information useful to the vehicle dynamic control. The PV was based on a serial production passenger car with Electronic Stability Control (ESC). Testing activities on Controller Area Network (CAN) and ESC Electronic Control Unit (ECU) are carried out to compare the vehicle dynamic performance obtainable using serial production rather than customized control strategies, while maintaining the same hardware. The PV is also utilized to provide reverse engineering analysis about the implemented control strategy for the ESC working in serial production mode.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Automotive Steel Wheels Life Assessment

2020-04-14
2020-01-1240
A methodology for an efficient failure prediction of automotive steel wheels during fatigue experimental tests is proposed. The strategy joins the CDTire® simulative package effectiveness to a specific wheel finite element model in order to deeply monitor the stress distribution among the component to predict damage. The numerical model acts as a Software-in-the-loop and it is calibrated with experimental data. The developed tool, called VirtualWheel®, can be applied for the optimisation of design reducing prototyping and experimental test costs in the development phase. In the first section, the failure criterion is selected. In the second one, the conversion of hardware test-rig into virtual model is described in detail by focusing on critical aspects of finite element modelling. In conclusion, failure prediction is compared with experimental test results.
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