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Technical Paper

Virtual Simulation for Clutch Thermal Behavior Prediction

2018-05-30
2018-37-0021
The clutch is that mechanical part located in an internal combustion engine vehicle which allows the torque transmission from the shaft to the wheels, permitting at the same time gear shifting and supporting engine revolutions while the car is idling. This component exploits friction as working principle, therefore heat generation is in its own nature. The comprehension of all the critical issues related to thermal emission, and also of the principal physical parameters driving the phenomena are a must in design phases. The subject of this paper is the elaboration of an accurate, but also easy to use and easily replicable, methodology to simulate thermal behavior of a clutch operating inside its usual environment. The present methodology allows to prevent corrective actions in the last phase of the projects (real testing), such as changes in gear ratios, that likely worsen CO2 emissions, permitting to achieve the wished thermal performance of the clutch avoiding late changes.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0141
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Mass Estimation from CAN Data and Drivetrain Torque Observer

2017-03-28
2017-01-1590
A method for estimating the vehicle mass in real time is presented. Traditional mass estimation methods suffer due a lack of knowledge of the vehicle parameters, the road surface conditions and most importantly the effect of the vehicle transmission. To resolve these issues, a method independent of a vehicle model is utilized in conjunction with a drivetrain output torque observer to obtain the estimate of the vehicle mass. Simulations and experimental track tests indicate that the method is able to accurately estimate the vehicle mass with a relatively fast rate of convergence compared to traditional methods.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Driveability: Dynamic Analysis of Powertrain System Components

2016-04-05
2016-01-1124
The term driveability describes the driver's complex subjective perception of the interactions with the vehicle. One of them is associated to longitudinal acceleration aspects. A relevant contribution to the driveability optimization process is, nowadays, realized by means of track tests during which a considerable amount of driveline parameters are tuned in order to obtain a good compromise of longitudinal acceleration response. Unfortunately, this process is carried out at a development stage when a design iteration becomes too expensive. In addition, the actual trend of downsizing and supercharging the engines leads to higher vibrations that are transmitted to the vehicle. A large effort is therefore dedicated to develop, test and implement ignition strategies addressed to minimize the torque irregularities. Such strategies could penalize the engine maximum performance, efficiency and emissions. The introduction of the dual mass flywheel is beneficial to this end.
Technical Paper

The Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment (DEXA) Cluster: A Systematic Approach to Diesel Particulate Emission Control in Europe

2004-03-08
2004-01-0694
The DEXA Cluster consisted of three closely interlinked projects. In 2003 the DEXA Cluster concluded by demonstrating the successful development of critical technologies for Diesel exhaust particulate after-treatment, without adverse effects on NOx emissions and maintaining the fuel economy advantages of the Diesel engine well beyond the EURO IV (2000) emission standards horizon. In the present paper the most important results of the DEXA Cluster projects in the demonstration of advanced particulate control technologies, the development of a simulation toolkit for the design of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems and the development of novel particulate characterization methodologies, are presented. The motivation for the DEXA Cluster research was to increase the market competitiveness of diesel engine powertrains for passenger cars worldwide, and to accelerate the adoption of particulate control technology.
Technical Paper

Supercar Hybridization: A Synergic Path to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Improve Performance

2018-05-30
2018-37-0009
The trend towards powertrain electrification is expected to grow significantly in the next future also for super-cars. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess, through numerical simulation, the impact on both fuel economy and performance of different 48 Volt mild hybrid architectures for a high-performance sport car featuring a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition (TDISI) engine. In particular the hybrid functionalities of both a P0 (Belt Alternator Starter - BAS) and a P2 (Flywheel Alternator Starter - FAS) architecture were investigated and optimized for this kind of application through a global optimization algorithm. The analysis pointed out CO2 emission reductions potential of about 6% and 25% on NEDC, 7% and 28% on WLTC for P0 and P2 respectively. From the performance perspective, a 10% reduction in the time-to-torque was highlighted for both architectures in a load step maneuver at 2000 RPM constant speed.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of the Design Parameters of a Dual-Clutch Transmission Focused on NVH Performance

2016-04-05
2016-01-1127
This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of the NVH (noise vibration and harshness) performance of Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCTs) depending on some transmission design parameters, e.g. torsional backlash in the synchronizers or clutch disc moment of inertia, during low speed maneuvers. A 21-DOFs nonlinear dynamic model of a C-segment passenger car equipped with a DCT is used to simulate the torsional behavior of the driveline and to estimate the forces at the bearings. The impacts between the teeth of two engaging components, e.g. gears and synchronizers, generate impulses in the forces, thus loading the bearings with force time-history characterized by rich frequency content. A broadband excitation is therefore applied to the gearbox case, generating noise and vibration issues.
Technical Paper

Pem Fuel Cell Performance Under Particular Operating Conditions Causing the Production of Liquid Water: A Morphing on Bipolar Plate's Channels Approach

2011-04-12
2011-01-1349
A fuel-cell-based system's performance is mainly identified in the overall efficiency, strongly depending on the amount of power losses due to auxiliary devices to supply. In such a situation, everything that causes either a decrease of the available power output or an increment of auxiliary losses would determine a sensible overall efficiency reduction.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Layout and Control Strategy for Parallel Through-the-Road Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1798
This paper describes the optimization of the layout and of the control strategy of through-the-road (TTR) parallel hybrid electric vehicles equipped with two compression-ignition engines that feature different values of maximum output power. First, a tool has been developed to define the optimal layout of each TTR vehicle. This is based on the minimization of the powertrain and fuel cost over a 10-year time span, taking into account the fuel consumption. Several performance requirements are guaranteed during the optimization, namely maximum vehicle velocity, 0-100 km/h acceleration time, gradeability and the all-electric range. A benchmark optimizer that is based on the dynamic programming theory has been developed to identify the optimal working mode and the gear number, which are the control variables of the problem. A mathematical technique, based on the pre-processing of a configuration matrix, has been developed in order to speed up the calculation time.
Journal Article

Optimization of Electrified Powertrains for City Cars

2012-06-01
2011-01-2451
Sustainable and energy-efficient consumption is a main concern in contemporary society. Driven by more stringent international requirements, automobile manufacturers have shifted the focus of development into new technologies such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). These powertrains offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system compared to conventional vehicles, but they also lead to higher complexities in the design process and in the control strategy. In order to obtain an optimum powertrain configuration, each component has to be laid out considering the best powertrain efficiency. With such a perspective, a simulation study was performed for the purpose of minimizing well-to-wheel CO2 emissions of a city car through electrification. Three different innovative systems, a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV), a Mixed Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV) and a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) were compared to a conventional one.
Journal Article

Numerical and Experimental Assessment of a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector Operation with Advanced Injection Strategies

2016-04-05
2016-01-0563
The selection and tuning of the Fuel Injection System (FIS) are among the most critical tasks for the automotive diesel engine design engineers. In fact, the injection strongly affects the combustion phenomena through which controlling a wide range of related issues such as pollutant emissions, combustion noise and fuel efficiency becomes feasible. In the scope of the engine design optimization, the simulation is an efficient tool in order to both predict the key performance parameters of the FIS, and to reduce the amount of experiments needed to reach the final product configuration. In this work a complete characterization of a solenoid ballistic injector for a Light-Duty Common Rail system was therefore implemented in a commercially available one-dimensional computational software called GT-SUITE. The main phenomena governing the injector operation were simulated by means of three sub-models (electro-magnetic, hydraulic and mechanical).
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Mixture Formation and Performance in a Direct Injection CNG Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0401
This paper presents the results of part of the research activity carried out by the Politecnico di Torino and AVL List GmbH as part of the European Community InGAS Collaborative Project. The work was aimed at developing a combustion system for a mono-fuel turbocharged CNG engine, with specific focus on performance, fuel economy and emissions. A numerical and experimental analysis of the jet development and mixture formation in an optically accessible, single cylinder engine is presented in the paper. The experimental investigations were performed at the AVL laboratories by means of the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique, and revealed a cycle-to-cycle jet shape variability that depended, amongst others, on the injector characteristics and in-cylinder backpressure. Moreover, the mixing mechanism had to be optimized over a wide range of operating conditions, under both stratified lean and homogeneous stoichiometric modes.
Technical Paper

Mode-shifting Minimization in a Power Management Strategy for Rapid Component Sizing of Multimode Power Split Hybrid Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1018
The production of multi-mode power-split hybrid vehicles has been implemented for some years now and it is expected to continually grow over the next decade. Control strategy still represents one of the most challenging aspects in the design of these vehicles. Finding an effective strategy to obtain the optimal solution with light computational cost is not trivial. In previous publications, a Power-weighted Efficiency Analysis for Rapid Sizing (PEARS) algorithm was found to be a very promising solution. The issue with implementing a PEARS technique is that it generates an unrealistic mode-shifting schedule. In this paper, the problematic points of PEARS algorithm are detected and analyzed, then a solution to minimize mode-shifting events is proposed. The improved PEARS algorithm is integrated in a design methodology that can generate and test several candidate powertrains in a short period of time.
Journal Article

Impact on Performance, Emissions and Thermal Behavior of a New Integrated Exhaust Manifold Cylinder Head Euro 6 Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0128
The integration of the exhaust manifold in the engine cylinder head has received considerable attention in recent years for automotive gasoline engines, due to the proven benefits in: engine weight diminution, cost saving, reduced power enrichment, quicker engine and aftertreatment warm-up, improved packaging and simplification of the turbocharger installation. This design practice is still largely unknown in diesel engines because of the greater difficulties, caused by the more complex cylinder head layout, and the expected lower benefits, due to the absence of high-load enrichment. However, the need for improved engine thermomanagement and a quicker catalytic converter warm-up in efficient Euro 6 diesel engines is posing new challenges that an integrated exhaust manifold architecture could effectively address. A recently developed General Motors 1.6L Euro 6 diesel engine has been modified so that the intake and exhaust manifolds are integrated in the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Size and Weight Reduction Due to Innovative Metallic Bipolar Plates: Technical Process Details and Improvements

2009-04-20
2009-01-1009
In the automotive field the application of electric propulsion systems based on fuel cells requires a constant and continuing research of several optimized solutions, especially in terms of weight and size reduction. These key-factors tend to influence significantly the performance of the vehicle where the system is installed on. The main objective of the paper is to obtain breakthroughs in designing, manufacturing and assembling a fuel cell stack through the development of innovative metallic bipolar plates, that allows to set up high power density stacks, by lowering sensibly weight and size. The research activity carried out by the aforementioned authors is focused on the choice of suitable materials and the development of optimized tools, processes and techniques, in order to be able to move rapidly towards thinner bipolar plates, with new compact geometries that ensure the required stack output power.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Multi-Event Injection Strategies in a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector

2017-09-04
2017-24-0012
Nowadays, injection rate shaping and multi-pilot events can help to improve fuel efficiency, combustion noise and pollutant emissions in diesel engine, providing high flexibility in the shape of the injection that allows combustion process control. Different strategies can be used in order to obtain the required flexibility in the rate, such as very close pilot injections with almost zero Dwell Time or boot shaped injections with optional pilot injections. Modern Common-Rail Fuel Injection Systems (FIS) should be able to provide these innovative patterns to control the combustion phases intensity for optimal tradeoff between fuel consumption and emission levels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Methodologies To Determine Diaphragm Spring Clutch Characteristics

2000-03-06
2000-01-1151
The paper presents an experimental study to investigate the relationships among diaphragm spring clutch transmitted torque, thermal phenomena during clutch engagement and clutch wear. The work describes the development of a test bench presented by the Authors in a former paper. The original techniques were developed to measure the desired magnitudes and to develop the experimental methodology to investigate the relationships. The main results were obtained considering different operating conditions, dynamics of thermal phenomena and clutch wear.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Transmission NVH Performance through Powertrain Control Integration with Active Braking System

2017-06-05
2017-01-1778
This paper explores the potentiality of reducing noise and vibration of a vehicle transmission thanks to powertrain control integration with active braking. Due to external disturbances, coming from the driver, e.g. during tip-in / tip-out maneuvers, or from the road, e.g. crossing a speed bump or driving on a rough road, the torsional backlashes between transmission rotating components (gears, synchronizers, splines, CV joints), may lead to NVH issues known as clonk. This study initially focuses on the positive effect on transmission NVH performance of a concurrent application of a braking torque at the driving wheels and of an engine torque increase during these maneuvers; then a powertrain/brake integrated control strategy is proposed. The braking system is activated in advance with respect to the perturbation and it is deactivated immediately after to minimize losses.
Technical Paper

Effective Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation using DVS Technology

2014-04-01
2014-01-0084
The vehicle sideslip angle is one of the most important variables for evaluating vehicle dynamics. The potential value of such a variable for obtaining significant improvements over current stability control systems is widely recognized. However, its direct measurement requires the use of complex and expensive devices which cannot be used in production cars. Large research efforts has been devoted to the problem of estimating the sideslip angle from other variables currently measured by standard Electronic Stability Control (ESC) sensors. However, at the best of author's knowledge, until now no application to production cars is known. In this paper, a new sideslip angle estimation technology is presented.
Technical Paper

Dual Clutch Transmission Vibrations during Gear Shift: A Simulation-Based Approach for Clunking Noise Assessment

2019-06-05
2019-01-1553
A novel methodology, for the assessment of Dual Clutch Transmission vibrations during gear shifts, is proposed in this paper. It is based on the capability to predict through numerical simulation a typical dynamic quantity used to objectively evaluate the vibrational behavior of a gearbox during experimental tests, i.e. the acceleration of a point on the external surface of the gearbox housing. To achieve this result, a two-step approach is proposed: an accurate simulation of the internal transmission dynamics and an offline uncoupled computation of the gearbox housing acceleration from the output of the simulation. The first step required the definition of a suitable nonlinear lumped parameter model of the car equipped with a DCT that was implemented in Amesim software.
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