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Journal Article

ℒ1 Adaptive Flutter Suppression Control Strategy for Highly Flexible Structure

2013-09-17
2013-01-2263
The aim of this work is to apply an innovative adaptive ℒ1 techniques to control flutter phenomena affecting highly flexible wings and to evaluate the efficiency of this control algorithm and architecture by performing the following tasks: i) adaptation and analysis of an existing simplified nonlinear plunging/pitching 2D aeroelastic model accounting for structural nonlinearities and a quasi-steady aerodynamics capable of describing flutter and post-flutter limit cycle oscillations, ii) implement the ℒ1 adaptive control on the developed aeroelastic system to perform initial control testing and evaluate the sensitivity to system parameters, and iii) perform model validation and calibration by comparing the performance of the proposed control strategy with an adaptive back-stepping algorithm. The effectiveness and robustness of the ℒ1 adaptive control in flutter and post-flutter suppression is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Turbulence Spectrum Investigation in a DI Diesel Engine with a Reentrant Combustion Bowl and a Helical Inlet Port

1996-10-01
962019
The frequency spectral structure of turbulence spatial components was investigated in the cylinder of an automotive diesel engine with a high-squish reentrant in-piston bowl of the conical type and a helical inlet port. A sophisticated HWA technique using single- and dual-sensor probes was applied for instantaneous air velocity measurements along the injector axis at practical engine speeds, up to 3000 rpm, under motored conditions. The investigation was carried out for both cycle-resolved and conventional turbulence components, as were determined by different wire orientations, throughout the induction, the compression and the early stage of the expansion stroke. The anisotropy of turbulence spectral structure and its temporal evolution during the engine cycle were examined by evaluating the autospectral density functions and the time scales of each turbulence component in consecutive correlation crank-angle intervals.
Technical Paper

Time-Frequency Spectral Stucture of Turbulence in an Automotive Engine

1992-02-01
920153
The results of an experimental study on the statistical structure of turbulence in an automotive engine are reported, with specific reference to the time-frequency domains. Autocorrelation and autospectral density coefficients were evaluated in consecutive crank-angle intervals throughout the induction and compression strokes. Eulerian time scales were obtained on the analogy of both the micro and integral time scales of turbulence for stationary flows. The spatial distribution of the turbulence structure was investigated in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine with a shallow in-piston bowl and two tangential intake ducts. The study was carried out for different swirl flow conditions, produced by deactivating one intake duct and/or by changing the engine speed. The velocity data were acquired using an advanced HWA technique, under motored conditions.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Supersonic Stream on the Dependence "Amplitude-Frequency" of Nonlinear Vibrations of Flexible Plate

2013-09-17
2013-01-2160
The stability analysis of plates and shells in high speed flow deals with the determination of the flutter instability boundary. A linear analysis is made using the basic principles of the theory of aero-elasticity of isotropic bodies, the theories of flexible plates, the stability equations and associated boundary conditions obtained through a linear formulation. Herein, the nonlinear stability of flexible plate immersed in a high speed gas flow is considered. The model takes into account quadratic and cubic aerodynamic nonlinearities as well as cubic geometric nonlinearities. It is shown that the inclusion of quadratic aerodynamic nonlinear components can lead to the appearance of “amplitude-frequency” phenomena in both the pre-critical as well as in the post-critical flow speed regimes. The influence of the free stream flow speed on the “amplitude-frequency” dependence phenomena is also presented.
Technical Paper

Structural and Aerodynamics Analysis on Different Architectures for the Elettra Twin Flyer Prototype

2009-11-10
2009-01-3128
This paper deals with the design and development of an innovative airship concept which is remotely-controlled and intended to be used for monitoring, surveillance, exploration and reconnaissance missions. Two potential solutions have been analyzed: the first consists of a double-hull configuration, characterized by the presence of a primary support structure connected by appropriated bindings to a couple of twin inflatable hulls. The second architecture is a soap-shaped exoskeleton configuration which features a single inflated section, incorporating two separate elements held internally by a system of ribs. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the two configurations, to determine the most appropriate solution in terms of performance, cost and maneuvering capabilities
Technical Paper

Speed Dependence of Turbulence Properties in a High-Squish Automotive Engine Combustion System

1996-02-01
960268
The variation of turbulent flow quantities with engine speed has been investigated in the combustion chamber of an automotive diesel engine with a high-squish conical-type in-piston bowl and one helicoidal intake duct, at speeds covering the wide range of 600-3000 rpm, under motored conditions. The investigation had the main purpose of studying the engine speed effect on the structure of both cycle-resolved and conventional turbulence over the induction, the compression and the early stage of the expansion stroke. The low frequency component of the fluctuating motion was also investigated.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Slender Beam-Wise Schemes for Structural Behavior of Flexible UAS Wings

2015-09-15
2015-01-2462
The innovative highly flexible wings made of extremely light structures, yet still capable of carrying a considerable amount of non- structural weights, requires significant effort in structural simulations. The complexity involved in such design demands for simplified mathematical tools based on appropriate nonlinear structural schemes combined with reduced order models capable of predicting accurately their aero-structural behaviour. The model presented in this paper is based on a consistent nonlinear beam-wise scheme, capable of simulating the unconventional aeroelastic behaviour of flexible composite wings. The partial differential equations describing the wing dynamics are expanded up to the third order and can be used to explore the effect of static deflection imposed by external trim, the effect of gust loads and the one of nonlinear aerodynamic stall.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Theoretical Car Flow Investigation

1986-03-01
860213
During the past few years substantial advances have been made in reducing the drag of automobiles. Future improvements are becoming increasingly difficult to achieve; for this reason more-advanced flow investigation methods are required. This paper shows some results of flow analysis performed using two methods. The first is experimental and is based on car-wake flow surveying; the second is computational and is based on inviscid flow calculations simply corrected for viscous effects. The two methods may be usefully combined.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Fractal Model for the Simulation of Turbulent Flame Propagation in SI Engines

2005-09-11
2005-24-082
The necessity for further reductions of in-cylinder pollutant formation and the opportunity to minimize engine development and testing times highlight the need of engine thermodynamic cycle simulation tools that are able to accurately predict the effects of fuel, design and operating variables on engine performance. In order to set up reliable codes for indicated cycle simulation in SI engines, an accurate prediction of heat release is required, which, in turn, involves the evaluation of in-cylinder turbulence generation and flame-turbulence interaction. This is generally pursued by the application of a combustion fractal model coupled with semi-empirical correlations of available geometrical and thermodynamical mass-averaged quantities. However, the currently available correlations generally show an unsatisfactory capability to predict the effects of flame-turbulence interaction on burning speed under the overall flame propagation interval.
Journal Article

Development of a K-k-∊ Phenomenological Model to Predict In-Cylinder Turbulence

2017-03-28
2017-01-0542
The turbulent flow field inside the cylinder plays a major role in spark ignition (SI) engines. Multiple phenomena that occur during the high pressure part of the engine cycle, such as early flame kernel development, flame propagation and gas-to-wall heat transfer, are influenced by in-cylinder turbulence. Turbulence inside the cylinder is primarily generated via high shear flows that occur during the intake process, via high velocity injection sprays and by the destruction of macro-scale motions produced by tumbling and/or swirling structures close to top dead center (TDC) . Understanding such complex flow phenomena typically requires detailed 3D-CFD simulations. Such calculations are computationally very expensive and are typically carried out for a limited number of operating conditions. On the other hand, quasi-dimensional simulations, which provide a limited description of the in-cylinder processes, are computationally inexpensive.
Technical Paper

Design the City Vehicle XAM using CFD Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-1533
XAM is a two-seat city vehicle prototype developed at the Politecnico di Torino, equipped with a hybrid propulsion system to obtain low consumptions and reduced environmental impact. The design of this vehicle was guided by the requirements of weight reduction and aerodynamic optimization of the body, aimed at obtaining a reduction of resistance while guarantying roominess. The basic shape of the vehicle corresponding to the requirements of style, ergonomics and structure were deeply studied through CFD simulation in order to assess its aerodynamic performance (considering the vehicle as a whole or the influence of the various details and of their changes separately). The most critical areas of the body (underfloor, tail, spoiler, mirrors, A-pillar) were analyzed creating dedicated refinement volumes.
Technical Paper

Calculating Heavy-Duty Truck Energy and Fuel Consumption Using Correlation Formulas Derived From VECTO Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-1278
The Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool (VECTO) is used in Europe for calculating standardised energy consumption and CO2 emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks (HDTs) for certification purposes. The tool requires detailed vehicle technical specifications and a series of component efficiency maps, which are difficult to retrieve for those that are outside of the manufacturing industry. In the context of quantifying HDT CO2 emissions, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission received VECTO simulation data of the 2016 vehicle fleet from the vehicle manufacturers. In previous work, this simulation data has been normalised to compensate for differences and issues in the quality of the input data used to run the simulations. This work, which is a continuation of the previous exercise, focuses on the deeper meaning of the data received to understand the factors contributing to energy and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Application of Adjoint Methods on Drag Reduction of Current Production Cars

2018-05-30
2018-37-0016
Automotive manufacturers are facing stronger and stronger pressure to optimize all aspects related to fuel consumption of cars, and aerodynamic drag makes no exception, due to increasing government enforcing rules for the reduction of the emissions and the increasing influence of aerodynamic performance on fuel consumption with WLTC and RDE driving cycles. Nowadays, CFD simulation is a common tool across automotive industries for the assessment and the optimization of vehicle resistance in the design phase. The full power of these numerical methods of studying many design variants in advance of experimental testing, however, can be fully exploited when coupled with optimization techniques, always keeping into account constraints and aesthetical demands. On the other hand, a massive use of CFD optimization can lead to unaffordable computational efforts or a limitation of the design exploration space.
Technical Paper

A Possible Adaptive Wing Apparatus for New UAV Configurations

2015-09-15
2015-01-2463
The problem of wing shape modification under loads in order to enhance the aircraft performance and control is continuously improving by researchers. This requirement is in contrast to the airworthiness regulations that constraint stiffness and stress of the structure in order to maintain structural integrity under operative flight conditions. The lifting surface modification is more stringent in those cases, such as UAV configurations, where the installed power is limited but the variety of operative scenario is wider than in conventional aircraft. A possible solution for adaptive wing configuration can be found in the VENTURAS Project idea. The VENTURAS Project is a funded project with the aim of improve the wind turbine efficiency by means of introducing a twisting capability for the blade sections according to the best situation in any wind condition. The blade structure is composed by two parts: 1) internal supporting element, 2) external deformable envelope.
Technical Paper

A PEM Fuel Cell Laminar and Turbulent Models Comparison, Aiming at Identifying Small-Scale Plate Channel Phenomena: A Mesh Independent Configuration

2011-04-12
2011-01-1177
Computational Fluid Dynamics is a powerful instrument for PEM fuel cell systems development, testing and optimization. Considering the complication due to the multiple physical phenomena involved in the cell's operations, a good understanding of the micro-scale fluidic behavior in boundary layers is recommended: pressure drop along the reactants gas channels and the cooling channels has a sensible effect on parasite load in fuel cell systems (i.e. the power absorbed by the pump supplying the gases), as well as an important role in thermal transport. A correct thermal and fluid dynamic boundary layer prediction on the channel walls and the other contact surface with porous layers requires usually a dense finite element volumes discretization near wall, especially if laminar flows occur: therefore, the boundary layer computational cost tends to be the major one.
Technical Paper

A New Test Bench for HWA Fluid-Dynamic Characterization of a Two-Valved In-Piston-Bowl Production Engine

1995-10-01
952467
A new test bench has been set up and equipped in order to analyze the air mean motion and turbulence quantities in the combustion system of an automotive diesel engine with one helicoidal intake duct and a conical type in-piston bowl. A sophisticated HWA technique employing single- and dual-sensor probes was applied to the in-cylinder flow investigation under motored conditions. The anemometric probe was also operated as a thermometric sensor. An analytical-numerical procedure, based on the heat balance equations for both anemometric and thermometric wires, was refined and applied to compute the gas velocity from the anemometer output signal. The gas property influence, the thermometric sensor lag and the prong temperature effects were taken into account with this procedure. The in-cylinder velocity data were reduced using both a cycle-resolved approach and the conventional ensemble-averaging procedure, in order to separate the mean flow from the fluctuating motion.
Journal Article

A New Approach for the Estimation of the Aerodynamic Damping Characteristics of the ETF Demonstrator

2011-10-18
2011-01-2649
Nautilus S.p.A. and the Polytechnic of Turin, in cooperation with Blue Engineering, have developed a very versatile product, the ELETTRA Twin Flyers [6] (ETF), which consists in a very innovative remotely-piloted airship equipped with high precision sensors and communication devices. This multipurpose platform is particularly suitable for border and maritime surveillance missions and for telecommunication, both in military and civil area. To assess the actual maneuver capabilities of the airship [14], a prototype of reduced size and complexity has been assembled [16]. Before the flight tests a further assessment on the flight simulator is needed, because the first version of the software is tuned on the full scale prototype. Steady state performance and static stability of the demonstrator have been evaluated with CFD analysis.
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