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Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of a Cast Iron Exhaust Manifold: a Comparison Between the Traditional and a New Methodology

2010-04-12
2010-01-0498
Thermo-structural analysis of components is usually carried out by means of two FE models, one that solves the thermal problem and one that, using the results of the thermal model, computes strains and stresses. The interaction between the two models is based on the superposition principle, but it means that the mutual effects and the non-linearities between the two physical problems are neglected. In this paper a multiphysics approach based on the Cell Method is proposed and it is applied to a time dependent thermo-mechanical case study represented by an exhaust manifold simulacrum: the coupled thermal and mechanical problems are solved in an unique run, giving the opportunity to take into account mutual effects. Comparing the results with the traditional FE analysis the advantages in terms of accuracy and computational time achieved through the proposed methodology are highlighted.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Crankcase Clearance Volume on Two-Stroke S.I. Engine Performance

1999-09-28
1999-01-3331
The performance of two-stroke spark-ignition engines is greatly influenced by the scavenging process The variation of the crankcase clearance volume has here been investigated as a method for engine-load reduction. This method allows the reduction of the load without throttling or only by partial throttling with a theoretical increase of the engine efficiency. A comparison of two methods (air throttling and crankcase clearance volume variation) has therefore been carried out. The reduction of pumping work, due to the use of the variable crankcase clearance volume, has not always caused a consequent reduction of the specific fuel consumption. This is mainly due to deterioration of the scavenging process and to the occurrence of pre-ignition which occur above all at light loads.
Technical Paper

Structural and Aerodynamics Analysis on Different Architectures for the Elettra Twin Flyer Prototype

2009-11-10
2009-01-3128
This paper deals with the design and development of an innovative airship concept which is remotely-controlled and intended to be used for monitoring, surveillance, exploration and reconnaissance missions. Two potential solutions have been analyzed: the first consists of a double-hull configuration, characterized by the presence of a primary support structure connected by appropriated bindings to a couple of twin inflatable hulls. The second architecture is a soap-shaped exoskeleton configuration which features a single inflated section, incorporating two separate elements held internally by a system of ribs. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the two configurations, to determine the most appropriate solution in terms of performance, cost and maneuvering capabilities
Technical Paper

Road to Virtual Tuning: New Physical Lump Model and Test Protocol to Support Damper Tuning in Hyundai Motor Europe Technical Center

2019-04-02
2019-01-0855
Vehicle dynamics is a fundamental part of vehicle performance. It combines functional requirements (i.e. road safety) with emotional content (“fun to drive”, “comfort”): this balance is what characterizes the car manufacturer (OEM) driving DNA. To reach the customer requirements on Ride & Handling, integration of CAE and testing is mandatory. Beside of cutting costs and time, simulation helps to break down vehicle requirements to component level. On chassis, the damper is the most important component, contributing to define the character of the vehicle, and it is defined late, during tuning, mainly by experienced drivers. Usually 1D lookup tables Force vs. Velocity, generated from tests like the standard VDA, are not able to describe the full behavior of the damper: different dampers display the same Force vs. Velocity curve but they can give different feeling to the driver.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Predictive Modeling of Combustion and NOx Formation in Diesel Engines Under Transient Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0899
The present work has the aim of developing a fast approach for the predictive calculation of in-cylinder combustion temperatures and NOx formation in diesel engines, under steady state and transient conditions. The model has been tested on a PC, and found to require very little computational time, thus suggesting it could be implemented in the ECU (Engine Control Unit) of engines for model-based control tasks. The method starts with the low-throughput predictive combustion model that was previously developed by the authors, which allows the predictive estimation of the heat-release rate and of the in-cylinder pressure trace to be made on the basis of the injection parameters and of a few quantities measured by the ECU, such as the intake manifold pressure and temperature.
Technical Paper

Particle Number, Size and Mass Emissions of Different Biodiesel Blends Versus ULSD from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0633
Experimental work was carried out on a small displacement Euro 5 automotive diesel engine alternatively fuelled with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and with two blends (30% vol.) of ULSD and of two different fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained from both rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) in order to evaluate the effects of different fuel compositions on particle number (PN) emissions. Particulate matter (PM) emissions for each fuel were characterized in terms of number and mass size distributions by means of two stage dilutions system coupled with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were performed at three different sampling points along the exhaust system: at engine-out, downstream of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF). Thus, it was possible to evaluate both the effects of combustion and after-treatment efficiencies on each of the tested fuels.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Variable Geometry Exhaust System Through Design of Experiment

2008-04-14
2008-01-0675
Experimental Design methodologies have been applied in conjunction with objective functions for the optimization of the internal geometry of a rear muffler of a subcompact car equipped with a 1.4 liters displacement s.i. turbocharged engine. The muffler also features an innovative variable geometry design. The definition of an objective function summarising the silencing capability of the muffler has been driving the optimization process with the aim to reduce the tailpipe noise while maintaining acceptable pressure losses and complying with severe space constraints. Design of Experiments techniques for the reduction of experimental plans have been shown to be extremely effective to find out the optimum values of the design parameters, allowing a remarkable reduction of the time required by the design process in comparison with full factorial designs.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Light Aircraft Spark-Ignition Engine

2006-08-30
2006-01-2420
The aim of this study was to find a convenient set-up for an innovative engine dedicated to light aircraft through a numerical one-dimensional simulation. Six different engine layouts were analyzed in order to find the highest power/weight ratio and the least voluminous configuration. The first was a four cylinder, four stroke, horizontally opposed, naturally aspirated, water cooled engine with 16 valves that delivered 75 kW (∼100 bhp) at 2400 rpm for an estimated weight of 65 kg. A gearbox was also used in the naturally aspirated model to decrease the displacement, the weight and the overall dimensions. The other solutions involved these two engines in a turbocharged layout in order to gain a further downsizing. The supercharging was obtained through a centrifugal compressor driven by an exhaust-gas driven turbine, which also allows the power to be restored at cruising altitude.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Exhaust Manifold Gasket

2006-04-03
2006-01-1210
The paper presents experimental investigation and numerical simulation of a commercial exhaust manifold gasket. Non-linearities in geometric and material behavior make exhaust manifold gasket modeling quite complicated. In the paper, two different FE modeling techniques are compared in order to suggest the best modeling way. Experimental data are collected in order to validate the numerical models. Differences between the two modeling techniques are emphasized and a choice criterion is suggested.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Different Thermal Insulation Strategies for a Passenger Car Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0021
One of the key technologies for the improvement of the diesel engine thermal efficiency is the reduction of the engine heat transfer through the thermal insulation of the combustion chamber. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effects of the combustion chamber insulation on the heat transfer, thermal efficiency and exhaust temperatures of a 1.6 l passenger car, turbo-charged diesel engine. First, the complete insulation of the engine components, like pistons, liner, firedeck and valves, has been simulated. This analysis has showed that the piston is the component with the greatest potential for the in-cylinder heat transfer reduction and for Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) reduction, followed by firedeck, liner and valves. Afterwards, the study has been focused on the impact of different piston Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) on heat transfer, performance and wall temperatures.
Technical Paper

Numerical Assessment of the CO2 Reduction Potential of Variable Valve Actuation on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2018-05-30
2018-37-0006
The increasingly demanding targets in terms of CO2 reduction lead to the adoption of engine technologies left so far for innovation. In diesel engines, some of the primary interests in adopting an advanced air management system, as Variable Valve Actuation (VVA), are related to Miller cycle enabling, and valve timing optimization. In this context, a numerical study was carried out in order to evaluate the impact of VVA on passenger car 4-cylinder diesel engine, 1.6 liters. The engine model, developed in GT-SUITE, features a predictive combustion model (DIPulse) and it is coupled with a fully predictive fuel injector model for the simulation of complex injection patterns. 3 different VVA techniques were evaluated, all targeting CO2 reduction: Late Exhaust Valve Opening (LEVO), Exhaust Phasing, and Late Inlet Valve Closure (LIVC) for enabling Miller cycle.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis on the Potential of Different Variable Valve Actuation Strategies on a Light Duty Diesel Engine for Improving Exhaust System Warm Up

2017-09-04
2017-24-0024
The need for achieving a fast warm up of the exhaust system has raised in the recent years a growing interest in the adoption of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology for automotive diesel engines. As a matter of fact, different measures can be adopted through VVA to accelerate the warm up of the exhaust system, such as using hot internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (iEGR) to heat the intake charge, especially at part load, or adopting early Exhaust Valve Opening (eEVO) timing during the expansion stroke, so to increase the exhaust gas temperature during blowdown. In this paper a simulation study is presented evaluating the impact of VVA on the exhaust temperature of a modern light duty 4-cylinder diesel engine, 1.6 liters, equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT).
Technical Paper

Nano-Sized Additive Synthesis for Lubricant Oils and Compatibility Tests with After-Treatment Catalysts

2011-09-11
2011-24-0101
Molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles have been successfully obtained, for lubricant applications, by means of a wet chemical synthesis in an aqueous solution employing ammonium molybdate, citric acid and ammonium sulfide as the reactants. Some molybdenum-citrate complexes were formed and they reacted with the ammonium sulfide to form MoS₂ nanoparticles. Mo:citrate molar ratio was identified as being the most relevant of the synthesis parameters that affected the phase and morphology of the final products. The optimized nanopowders were softly agglomerated and amorphous, with a mean size of the primary particles of about 30 nm. The compatibility between the thus obtained MoS₂ nanopowders and some commercial after-treatment catalysts for diesel vehicle engines was tested. Diesel oxidation, soot combustion and ammonia-SCR de-NOx catalysts were considered as were the possible effects on the catalytic activity and their possible reaction to the MoS₂ additive.
Technical Paper

Multi-objective Optimization of a Multifunctional Structure through a MOGA and SOM based Methodology

2013-09-17
2013-01-2207
A Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) problem concerning the thermal control problem of Multifunctional Structures (MFSs) is here addressed. In particular the use of Multi-Objective algorithms from an optimization tool and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) is proposed for the identification of the optimal topological distribution of the heating components for a multifunctional test panel, the Advanced Bread Board (ABB). MFSs are components that conduct many functions within a single piece of hardware, shading the clearly defined boundaries that identify traditional subsystems. Generally speaking, MFSs have already proved to be a disrupting technology, especially in aeronautics and space application fields. The case study exploited in this paper refers to a demonstrator breadboard called ABB. ABB belongs to a particular subset of an extensive family of MFS, that is, of thermo-structural panels with distributed electronics and a health monitoring network.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of Variable Displacement Vane Pumps for IC Engine Lubrication

2004-03-08
2004-01-1601
The paper presents geometric, kinematic and fluid-dynamic modelling of variable displacement vane pumps for low pressure applications in internal combustion engines lubrication. All these fundamental aspects are integrated in a simulation environment and form the core of a design tool leading to the assessment of performance, critical issues, related influences and possible solutions in a well grounded engineering support to decision.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of Gerotor Gearing in Lubricating Oil Pumps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0626
The paper presents geometric and kinematic aspects that constitute a premise to the modelling and simulation of gerotor lubricating oil pumps. With reference to a commercial oil pump two different modelling approaches of the pumping elements are addressed: the classical integral-derivative approach and the new derivative-integral approach. The latter, based on volumes swept by vector rays, is easier to implement and requires less computer time at equal accuracy. Two approaches to modelling are also detailed that feature different reticulations of the pump and consequently involve a different number of ordinary differential equations (ODE). Depending on the extent and detail of expected informations, either 4 or N+2 ODE must be solved, N being the number of variable volume chambers in the pump. Finally, numerical results of the simulation code, developed in the AMESim environment, have been compared with experimental results presented elsewhere [4].
Journal Article

Modelling and Simulation of Brake Booster Vacuum Pumps

2013-05-15
2013-01-9016
Aim of this work is the development of a lumped parameters simulation model of single-vane vacuum pumps for pneumatically actuated brake boosters. Kinematic and fluid-dynamic models are integrated in a simulation environment to create a tool aimed at evaluating the vacuum pump performance and at guiding the designer during the prototype development. The paper describes extensively the mathematical model, the time domain simulation and experimental analyses performed on a camshaft mounted unit. Great emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the geometric quantities of the control volumes into which the vacuum pump has been divided. For each control volume the mass and energy conservation equations lead to the determination of the instantaneous pressure. The volume of each variable chamber and the respective angular derivative are calculated as function of the shaft position starting from the stator track profile supplied as a generic closed polyline.
Technical Paper

Modal Analysis as a Design Tool for Dynamical Optimization of Common Rail Fuel Injection Systems

2015-09-06
2015-24-2467
A challenging task that is required to modern injection systems is represented by the enhanced control of the injected quantities, especially when small injections are considered, such as, pilot and main shots in the context of multiple injections. The propagation of the pressure waves triggered by the nozzle opening and closure events through the high-pressure hydraulic circuit can influence and alter the performance of the injection apparatus. For this reason, an investigation of the injection system fluid dynamics in the frequency domain has been proposed. A complete lumped parameter model of the high-pressure hydraulic circuit has been applied to perform a modal analysis. The visualization of the main vibration modes of the apparatus allows a detailed and deep comprehension of the system dynamics. Furthermore, the possible resonances, which are induced by the action of the external forcing terms, have been identified.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Time-Resolved Mass Injection Rates for a Multi-Hole and an Outward Opening Piezo GDI Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0929
Time-resolved mass injection rates of an outward opening piezo-actuated and a solenoid actuated multi-hole GDI injector were measured to investigate (1) the influence of both hardware and software settings and (2) the influence on the injection rates from a wide range of operational parameters and (3) discuss limitations and issues with this measurement technique. The varied operating parameters were fuel pressure, back-pressure, electrical pulse width, single/double injection and injection frequency. The varied hardware/software parameters were injector protrusion, upstream fuel pressure condition and the cut-off frequency of the software's low-pass filter. Signal quality was found to be dependent on both hardware and software settings, especially the cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter. Measurements with high signal quality were not possible for back-pressures lower than 0.5 MPa.
Technical Paper

Linear Approach to ESP Control Logic Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-1017
An Electronic Stability Program (ESP) control logic is designed. It is devoted to stabilize vehicle during cornering maneuvers. The aim of the activity is to obtain a feed forward (FF) control structure, capable of better performance than a previously developed closed loop one. The efficiency of ESP intervention is determined observing yaw rate peak reduction and oscillation damping time during step steer maneuver, together with vehicle side slip angle containment and longitudinal speed loss. A single track vehicle model is used to obtain two transfer functions describing vehicle and active system behavior. A third transfer function is derived from active vehicle frequency response that is the designer's target. The interaction between the transfer functions permits to design a feed forward control logic, which is then merged in a closed loop control structure in order to ensure fail safe conditions and control robustness.
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